In this arti­cle, we will tell you how to check the refrig­er­a­tor com­pres­sor for per­for­mance, describe its design and the device of this ele­ment. The com­pres­sor is one of the main com­po­nents of the refrig­er­a­tor, so to speak, the “heart”. If it does not start, refus­es to work, then the unit itself will cease to func­tion. Is it pos­si­ble to per­son­al­ly repair this part of the refrig­er­a­tor if there are sus­pi­cions of its mal­func­tion? It is pos­si­ble, but this requires cer­tain knowl­edge and skills.

How is a refrigerator compressor

How does a refrigerator compressor work?

In the back of the refrig­er­a­tor, from below, we usu­al­ly see the com­pres­sor hous­ing, it is usu­al­ly paint­ed black, inside which it is her­met­i­cal­ly sealed. He is in a state of weight­less­ness, in an oil bath. Com­pres­sors for most mod­els of house­hold refrig­er­a­tors do not dif­fer in design. Usu­al­ly their design is pre­sent­ed in the form of a pis­ton elec­tric motor with a start­ing wind­ing oper­at­ing from alter­nat­ing elec­tric cur­rent. Prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion: the com­pres­sor con­stant­ly cre­ates pres­sure, under the influ­ence of which the refrig­er­ant vapor (fre­on) enters the con­denser, where they are cooled and go fur­ther in the form of liq­uid through cop­per tubes, cool­ing the inside of the refrig­er­a­tor and tak­ing heat, after which it enters the evap­o­ra­tor, and from it back into the com­pres­sor. The process is cycli­cal. Nat­u­ral­ly, if the engine does not turn on, then the sys­tem will not func­tion.

There are three out­puts on the com­pres­sor hous­ing. They are made in the form of pins and are locat­ed at the bot­tom of the com­pres­sor, form­ing a tri­an­gle. One of the con­tacts comes from the start­ing wind­ing, the oth­er from the work­ing one, and the third one has one com­mon out­put. Also, any com­pres­sor includes a relay — a device due to which the engine starts. It con­nects to three pins and usu­al­ly looks like a small box. In more mod­ern refrig­er­a­tors, which pro­vide for reg­u­la­tion of the acti­va­tion speed, the com­pres­sor is con­nect­ed to anoth­er box, made using more com­plex elec­tri­cal cir­cuits.

Caus­es of a mal­func­tion of an elec­tri­cal appli­ance:

  • burnt com­pres­sor;
  • dam­aged start relay;
  • The cable to which the device is con­nect­ed is faulty or dam­aged.

It would be log­i­cal to first check the cable itself, and then pro­ceed to inspect the pos­si­ble mal­func­tion of the remain­ing parts of the device, if the cable is in good con­di­tion, respec­tive­ly.

Also, some­times there are cas­es when the com­pres­sor turns on, buzzes, the light is on, but it does not cool or cools, but very weak­ly. In this case, you need to pump refrig­er­ant into the com­pres­sor, in our case it is fre­on, because. it will most like­ly leak. In this case, it is nec­es­sary to call a mas­ter who will find a leak and pump gas.

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Dismantling the compressor

How to dismantle the refrigerator compressor

In order to dis­man­tle the com­pres­sor, you will need the fol­low­ing tools:

  • mul­ti­me­ter;
  • wire cut­ters (pli­ers);
  • blow­torch.

First you need to have a bite to eat cop­per pipes con­nect­ing the com­pres­sor with oth­er ele­ments. Gas (fre­on) will begin to come out of them. It is explo­sive, so it is nec­es­sary to car­ry out dis­man­tling away from sources of fire, and it is also rec­om­mend­ed to do this in a well-ven­ti­lat­ed area. After all the gas is released, you can con­tin­ue to work. It is required to sep­a­rate the remains of the tubes with a burn­er and dis­con­nect the com­pres­sor from the base, while unscrew­ing the bolts. Next, open the start relay with a screw­driv­er.

See also - How to hang the refrig­er­a­tor door your­self?

Resistance test

The next step to take if the com­pres­sor is not work­ing prop­er­ly is to check the resis­tance, because. If dam­aged, it may give you an elec­tric shock. This is due to the fact that the wind­ing was dam­aged, and the volt­age from it jumps to the case. This hap­pens most often with old units. This is checked by mea­sur­ing the resis­tance of each of the three con­tacts togeth­er with the refrig­er­a­tor body, while it is nec­es­sary that there is no paint in the place that rings. The mul­ti­me­ter should show “infin­i­ty” on the dis­play, i.e. don’t show any­thing, oth­er­wise your com­pres­sor is unus­able.

Pressure test

Checking compressor pressure

If the resis­tance test fails, but the refrig­er­a­tor still does not work, you should check it with a pres­sure gauge, i.e. check the pres­sure inside the case. It is nec­es­sary to con­nect the sim­u­la­tor to the dis­charge fit­ting, and take read­ings with the com­pres­sor turned on. If the pres­sure gauge shows a pres­sure of 6 atmos­pheres, at which this fig­ure is raster, in this case the refrig­er­a­tor is work­ing. If low­er, then you will need to replace the com­pres­sor hous­ing.

Current test

Anoth­er of the most impor­tant steps is to check the relay, or whether the cur­rent reach­es the motor. It is advis­able to take a work­ing relay that has been checked and test­ed. It is rec­om­mend­ed to use a mul­ti­me­ter with clamps.

After con­nect­ing the work­ing relay to the com­pres­sor, you must turn it on and con­nect a mul­ti­me­ter. This must be done by clamp­ing one of the wires with tongs. Depend­ing on the engine pow­er, the tester read­ings will also change. With an engine pow­er of 140 W, the dis­play should show 1.3 A. And with a pow­er indi­ca­tor of 120 W, from 1.1 to 1.2 A. In these cas­es, the relay is cor­rect­ed, and since. in most cas­es it fails, then it is worth check­ing it out.

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