In this article, we will tell you how to check the refrigerator compressor for performance, describe its design and the device of this element. The compressor is one of the main components of the refrigerator, so to speak, the “heart”. If it does not start, refuses to work, then the unit itself will cease to function. Is it possible to personally repair this part of the refrigerator if there are suspicions of its malfunction? It is possible, but this requires certain knowledge and skills.
How is a refrigerator compressor
In the back of the refrigerator, from below, we usually see the compressor housing, it is usually painted black, inside which it is hermetically sealed. He is in a state of weightlessness, in an oil bath. Compressors for most models of household refrigerators do not differ in design. Usually their design is presented in the form of a piston electric motor with a starting winding operating from alternating electric current. Principle of operation: the compressor constantly creates pressure, under the influence of which the refrigerant vapor (freon) enters the condenser, where they are cooled and go further in the form of liquid through copper tubes, cooling the inside of the refrigerator and taking heat, after which it enters the evaporator, and from it back into the compressor. The process is cyclical. Naturally, if the engine does not turn on, then the system will not function.
There are three outputs on the compressor housing. They are made in the form of pins and are located at the bottom of the compressor, forming a triangle. One of the contacts comes from the starting winding, the other from the working one, and the third one has one common output. Also, any compressor includes a relay — a device due to which the engine starts. It connects to three pins and usually looks like a small box. In more modern refrigerators, which provide for regulation of the activation speed, the compressor is connected to another box, made using more complex electrical circuits.
Causes of a malfunction of an electrical appliance:
- burnt compressor;
- damaged start relay;
- The cable to which the device is connected is faulty or damaged.
It would be logical to first check the cable itself, and then proceed to inspect the possible malfunction of the remaining parts of the device, if the cable is in good condition, respectively.
Also, sometimes there are cases when the compressor turns on, buzzes, the light is on, but it does not cool or cools, but very weakly. In this case, you need to pump refrigerant into the compressor, in our case it is freon, because. it will most likely leak. In this case, it is necessary to call a master who will find a leak and pump gas.
Dismantling the compressor
In order to dismantle the compressor, you will need the following tools:
- wire cutters (pliers);
First you need to have a bite to eat copper pipes connecting the compressor with other elements. Gas (freon) will begin to come out of them. It is explosive, so it is necessary to carry out dismantling away from sources of fire, and it is also recommended to do this in a well-ventilated area. After all the gas is released, you can continue to work. It is required to separate the remains of the tubes with a burner and disconnect the compressor from the base, while unscrewing the bolts. Next, open the start relay with a screwdriver.
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The next step to take if the compressor is not working properly is to check the resistance, because. If damaged, it may give you an electric shock. This is due to the fact that the winding was damaged, and the voltage from it jumps to the case. This happens most often with old units. This is checked by measuring the resistance of each of the three contacts together with the refrigerator body, while it is necessary that there is no paint in the place that rings. The multimeter should show “infinity” on the display, i.e. don’t show anything, otherwise your compressor is unusable.
If the resistance test fails, but the refrigerator still does not work, you should check it with a pressure gauge, i.e. check the pressure inside the case. It is necessary to connect the simulator to the discharge fitting, and take readings with the compressor turned on. If the pressure gauge shows a pressure of 6 atmospheres, at which this figure is raster, in this case the refrigerator is working. If lower, then you will need to replace the compressor housing.
Another of the most important steps is to check the relay, or whether the current reaches the motor. It is advisable to take a working relay that has been checked and tested. It is recommended to use a multimeter with clamps.
After connecting the working relay to the compressor, you must turn it on and connect a multimeter. This must be done by clamping one of the wires with tongs. Depending on the engine power, the tester readings will also change. With an engine power of 140 W, the display should show 1.3 A. And with a power indicator of 120 W, from 1.1 to 1.2 A. In these cases, the relay is corrected, and since. in most cases it fails, then it is worth checking it out.