For any person, the main convenience both in an apartment and in a country dwelling is the constant availability of water in the taps. In the country, to provide water supply, many owners install an autonomous water supply system. For a stable supply of water at any time of the day, you cannot do without installing a pumping station. What pumps can be used in a country house will be discussed in this article.
The purpose of the home pumping station
A domestic water station is a compact device that, thanks to the presence of automatic control, is able to ensure the functioning of the water supply.
This equipment consists of:
- suction pump;
- pressure tank;
- pressure switch;
- pressure gauge.
It can be located in the immediate vicinity of the well:
- in the basement;
- in mine;
- in a special room.
Qualitatively made automatic pumping stations for the home do not need special maintenance, as they are reliable in operation. Their operation in suburban buildings, the owners of which use water from their own sources, makes its consumption more comfortable. As a result, it is possible to connect washing and dishwashers and household plumbing.
Principle of operation
The functioning of any pumping station depends on the pump, the hydraulic accumulator and the automatic system designed to regulate the pressure. After starting the device, water is pumped into the pressure tank (accumulator), after which it moves through the pipes. It is important to know how to adjust the water pressure with a pressure regulator before starting any work.
The pump stops when the upper pressure limit is reached. Further flow of water occurs due to the presence of pressure in the tank until it drops to the lower limit value. Then the pump resumes its work.
This is how a home pumping station provides water supply in a constant mode. The pressure switch, which must respond to changes, is adjusted at the factory. To start the device, the required pressure is 2 bar and 3 bar to stop. This value is controlled by a manometer.
The most popular pump in sub-irrigation systems is the surface centrifugal pump. It most fully meets the requirements for an irrigation pump. These pumps combine high performance and high pressure. All major brands have a wide range of these pumps to cover the requirements of any irrigation project.
It is called surface because it is installed on the surface. Only the suction pipe is lowered into the well, well or other reservoir. The maximum suction depth is 5–7 meters.
The power of the pumps varies from 300 to 2200 W for single-phase current and even more powerful for 3‑phase current. Such a pump is installed next to the water tank. The volume of the container is selected in the project and depends on the area to be irrigated and the type of sprinklers. For example, for a plot of 20 acres with a lawn area of about 12 acres, a 1.7 kW pump and a 2000 l tank are used. In autumn, before frosts, the irrigation system is purged with air under pressure. Specialists carry out the conservation of the system using an air compressor.
Most often you can find pumps mounted in the open without shelters. Remarkably, pumps operate under rain and sun for many years, but it is still worth considering that the materials from which the pumps are made are not intended for outdoor operation. Under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and precipitation, the pump and automation are in harsh conditions, so it is recommended to cover the pump, for example, with a visor from rain and sun, or install the pump and automation in a ventilated cabinet.
Purchase of equipment
To ensure an autonomous water supply that fully meets domestic needs, it is important to know how to choose a pumping station for a private house.
First, you should decide on the main parameters of the purchased device, including:
- pressure tank volume.
Before you choose a pumping station for your home, you need to make some measurements and calculations, and you can do them yourself.
With their help, you will learn:
- Water injection depth.
- The distance between the source and points of water intake.
- Average simultaneous water consumption at all points. It is assumed that this value is about 4 l / min and in the case of using a shower 10 — 12 l / min. As a result, it is possible to determine the amount of one-time water consumption by all residents within an hour. The resulting value must match the performance of the equipment.
There are several options for managing such a station:
- automatic — the relay starts and turns off the pump after reaching the upper and lower pressure values;
A pumping station for a well or well, which ensures the operation of an autonomous water supply system of a private house, operates according to the following principle.
- Water is taken from an underground source by a pump, after which it enters a hydraulic accumulator, the internal capacity of which is divided into two halves by a membrane.
- The liquid pumped out by the pumping station from an underground source, entering the accumulator, acts on its membrane and stretches it, thereby increasing the pressure in the chamber with the air.
- As soon as the fluid level in the accumulator reaches its maximum value, the pump automatically turns off and stops supplying water to the tank capacity.
- When the water in the hydraulic tank becomes less than the minimum level, the water pumping station for a private house automatically turns on.
The pump with a hydraulic tank automatically maintains pressure in the water supply system at home
For turning on and off the well pumping station, as mentioned above, the pressure switch is responsible, which is pre-configured at the factory, but can also be adjusted by the consumer himself. As a rule, a pumping station for a private house is set up by the manufacturer in such a way that it automatically turns off at a pressure value in the system of 3 bar, and turns on at 2 bar. To control the level of pressure that an automatic water supply pumping station creates in the pipeline it serves, pressure gauges are provided in the design of such an installation.
Overheating and dry running protection
Devices designed to supply water, which have protection against dry running and overheating, have flawless functioning. When there is no water in the source, the system automatically turns off, as a result of which the electric motor does not overheat. This method of protection extends the life of a home water supply station, but at the same time increases its cost.
Popular brands of home appliances
In the domestic market, the most popular are:
- Italian products Marina, Pedrollo;
- German devices TM Karcher, Wilo;
- Gileks is a Russian-made pumping station.
The above equipment has the following parameters:
- Italian devices Marina
. They are designed to lift liquid from a depth of 25 meters. Thanks to the cast-iron body, the powerful stations of this TM can be operated in different conditions. The automatic mode of operation guarantees a constant pressure in the water supply. Productivity at a power of 1.1 kW is 2400 l / h.
- Pedrollo stations made in Italy
. They are distinguished by reliability and the ability to pump water from a depth of 9 — 30 meters. This water pumping station for giving with a power of 0.85 — 1.3 kW has a capacity of 2400 — 9600 l / h.
- German installations Karcher
. They are considered high-quality equipment that does not require additional maintenance due to automatic operation. Their complete set provides the lowered consumption of the electric power. Steel storage tanks can have a capacity of 18 to 40 liters. The power of these units is 0.95 kW, and the productivity is 3800 l / h.
- Stations Wilo
. Products of this brand have been on the market for over 100 years. The company uses the latest technology. Pumping household stations for summer cottages and Wilo houses are in high demand among consumers. They are distinguished by reliability, trouble-free operation and easy use, they have protection against dry running, condensation and overheating. They are sold with a capacity of 0.55 — 1.6 kW, with a tank of 8 to 60 liters.
- Pumping devices Gileks
. These stations are the most adapted to work in Russian conditions. The required pressure value is maintained by automation. Units with a capacity of 0.50 — 1.1 kW have a capacity of 2700 to 4200 l / h. The volume of the tank can be 24 — 50 liters. The body is made of carbon steel or plastic. Pressure control is carried out by a manometer.
Many owners of country houses do not have the opportunity to enjoy such a blessing of civilization as a centralized water supply network. This does not mean at all that the only way out in this situation is to carry water from the nearest source in buckets. Today it is quite possible to equip your own pressure water supply. A pumping station will help you with this, automatically supplying water from a well or well.
Decided to buy a pumping station for your home? The modern pumping equipment market offers many options — here are ready-made stations, and individual components, from which, as from a designer, you can assemble something that best suits your needs.
The choice must be taken very responsibly so that you do not have any problems during the operation of the equipment.
What is a pumping station
So, as mentioned above, the whole range of tasks includes ensuring the intake of water from the source in the required volumes, transporting it to places of water consumption with proper pressure. You can get acquainted in detail with the variety of pumping equipment for external sources, with its device, principles of operation, installation rules, laying lines, insulation, etc., on the pages of our portal, so it makes no sense to return to this topic.
There are several ways to solve the issue of water supply directly at the points of water intake:
- The pump turns on directly when it is necessary to supply water, that is, directly — from the source to the consumer. This scheme is one of the simplest in organization, but also the most imperfect. It completely depends on the parameters of the pumping equipment, and most importantly, on the availability of power at the time of water intake.
In addition, when automating such a system, that is, installing a flow sensor, the pump will start whenever any tap is opened — no matter whether you need to take a shower, put the laundry on, rinse the plate or even just take a glass of water. Agree that with such frequent switching on and off, any pumping equipment is unlikely to last a long time.
Such an approach can be fully justified for, for example, watering a garden or for providing water to a very small country house, where the owners come only from time to time.
- The pump pumps water into a storage tank located at the top of the house. Thus, there is always a certain margin that reduces the dependence of the owners on the stability of the electricity supply.
A quite possible, but not without drawbacks, solution is a capacious non-pressure tank
Such a system is easier to automate — you can install a float switch that will control the start and stop of the pump when the desired water level is reached in the tank and as it is consumed.
However, there are serious shortcomings here as well. Firstly, to install a storage tank, it is necessary to provide a lot of space in the upper part of the house. If this falls into the attic (and this happens most often), then you will also have to deal with high-quality thermal insulation of the container. Secondly, such a drive usually has a very impressive size.
Placing such a container in the attic will require additional efforts to insulate it.
And thirdly, the usual gravitational pressure of water from the tank may not be enough for the normal operation of household appliances. And this means that it will be necessary to install another pump — to increase the pressure, as shown in the diagram above. Agree that the installation of two pumps is not entirely and not always convenient, the overall complexity and vulnerability of the entire system increases.
- Finally, the third approach — a pump, surface or submersible (deep) pumps water into a membrane-type accumulator (pos. 1).
The optimal solution is a hydrostorage membrane tank
Not only is the required supply of water created — it is also under the right pressure, in such a way as to ensure the functioning of all plumbing and household appliances available in the house. The system is controlled by a pressure switch (in this figure — item 2) — it is designed to ensure that the pump is turned off at the moment when the upper limit of operating pressure is reached in the storage tank. As water is consumed, the pressure decreases, and when it drops to the lower threshold (which is still slightly higher than the pressure required for the correct operation of household appliances), the pump will be turned on again to replenish the spent supply. Thus, the pressure in the membrane tank is constantly maintained in the required operating range.
It is obvious that this scheme is the most convenient to use, optimal in terms of energy efficiency and the life of the pumping equipment. Such a system can be assembled from separate components — a pump, a hydroaccumulator tank, an automation unit with a pressure switch. But very often it makes sense to give preference to a ready-made technological solution to the problem — a special installation in which all the necessary elements of the system are arranged. It is this type of equipment that is called pumping stations.
An approximate diagram of a pumping station is shown in the figure below:
Schematic diagram of the device of the pumping station
Structurally, the pumping station consists of the following elements:
Water intake from a well or well is provided by a surface pump (pos. 1) of one type or another — the varieties will be mentioned below. An intake hose (pipe) (pos. 2) is laid to the water source, at the end of which a strainer (pos. 3) must be installed, which prevents the ingress of solid suspensions of unacceptable size, and a check valve (pos. 4), which prevents water from flowing down when off position of the pump.
The water leaving the pump under pressure passes through another non-return valve (pos. 5) and a splitter (pos. 6). An accumulative membrane tank (pos. 7), flexible piping (pos.to the barometric switch (pos. 9). The relay monitors the level of pressure in the system, ensuring timely operation to transfer power from the 220 V network (pos. 10) to the pumping unit. The pipe (pos. 11) supplies water with the required pressure to the points of consumption: faucets in the kitchen, in the bathroom, in the washbasin (“a” and “b”), the shower stall (“c”), the toilet flush tank (“g ”), washing machine and dishwasher (“d” and “e”), household tap — for watering, cleaning, car washing, etc. (“and”).
Design features of pumping stations
The layout of individual elements may vary between manufacturers and depending on the specific model range. For example, a barometric switch (pressure switch) may not have a flexible connection, but simply be “planted” on a pipe or on a membrane tank. However, the principle scheme will not change significantly from this.
Externally, the layout of the stations can vary quite significantly, but this is only at first glance.
Quite significant differences are possible in the type of the pump itself.
- Very often, conventional surface pumps of the self-priming type are used. These are reliable and easy-to-install units that do not require complex installation operations. They have a fairly high level of performance, are able to create a good pressure, undemanding to the purity of the water and to airing. The disadvantage is the low height of the rise of water from the well — usually within 6 meters, combined with a fairly high noise level. So for them it is better to provide a separate room.
The pump has a built-in ejector
- Some self-priming pumps are equipped with a built-in ejector — a special device that allows you to significantly increase the depth of water intake from a well or well. up to 10 — 15 meters. True, you have to “pay” for this with even greater noise and a slight decrease in overall efficiency — part of the energy is spent on recirculating water in the ejector loop.
- If the depth of the water in the source is significant, then the only alternative is to use a pumping station with an external ejector.
An external ejector allows water to be drawn from much deeper depths
The looped movement of water, which sharply increases the suction characteristics of the pump, is organized through the intake and additional hoses, lowered into the water and connected by an ejector nozzle.
Scheme of the recirculation movement of water through an external ejector
Such a connection scheme allows you to raise water from considerable depths (up to 40 — 45 meters) and transfer it over considerable distances through pipes from a remote source. The external location of the ejector block reduces the noise of the pumping station. There is, of course, a drawback — such equipment is characterized by high energy consumption due to reduced efficiency.
- For shallow sources, up to 8 — 10 meters, pumping stations with a multistage type unit are perfect. The level of noise generated is very low, so they will not become a source of irritation even when installed in a residential part of the house or in the kitchen. At the same time, both the pressure and the performance of the pump reach very significant values. True, the complexity of the design predetermines a much higher price than conventional self-priming units.
A multistage pump has several working chambers in series
Multistage pumps can be immediately distinguished by the size of the working chamber — it has a pronounced elongated cylindrical shape, since it contains several impellers:
- Another possible type of pumps installed on pumping stations is vortex. The special design of the working chamber and the shape of the wheel create a turbulent flow of water, which is characterized by a high pressure, however, due to a decrease in the performance of the device (compared to other types). The depth of the fence is small — usually within 6 ÷ 7 meters.
For shallow sources, a vortex-type pump is quite suitable.
It is advisable to use such pumping stations for small houses with a shallow source — here they will show “in full glory” their efficiency and quiet operation. Another common area of their use is as pumps that increase the pressure in the domestic water supply system, if such a need arises (for example, a weak pressure from the central water supply line).
The illustration below shows a typical layout of a pumping station in the plumbing system of a private house.
The place of the pumping station in the plumbing system of a private house
It is possible to place a pumping station both in the utility room of a residential building, and in a specially allocated room, for example, in the basement or basement floor. For a stationary installation, it is important to pay attention to laying the pipeline from the well to the house (shown by an orange arrow) at a depth below the freezing level of the soil and with its high-quality thermal insulation.
Pay attention to a number of letters with arrows shown in the diagram. These are the values that we will need in the future to determine the required parameters of the pumping station — the depth of water intake, the height of the pressure it creates, and the performance of the system.
Choosing a pumping station
The reader has already familiarized himself with some parameters for choosing a pumping station above. In particular, they talked about the type of the pump itself and related factors — noise, efficiency. Now let’s look at a few fundamental performance characteristics that must be taken into account when buying pumping equipment.
Maximum water intake depth
The selection of a pumping station for this parameter should be based on the actual characteristics of the water source and its distance from the installation site of the equipment.
The fundamental distance is the distance in height from the water surface in the well to the axis of the pump (shown in the diagram with red arrows and the letter G). It is customary to take the dynamic level of the well as a reference point, that is, the average level with a constant water intake for at least 24 ÷ 48 hours. The static level that water reaches if there was no selection from the well during the last one or two days can give a significant error in the calculations.
The values of the dynamic and static source level must be known to each host. They are determined empirically, by conducting measurements over a sufficiently long period. By the way, the debit of the well (well) largely depends on these indicators, which will also become one of the determining criteria when choosing pumping equipment.
If the water source is located in close proximity, literally a few meters from the pumping station, then this value of G may be quite sufficient. Of course, in order for the pump not to work at the limit of its capabilities, about 10 — 15% of the reserve should be added, especially since the water will also have to overcome the resistance of the check valve. But if a significant horizontal section is also being laid (in the diagram — blue arrows and the letter L), then it should also be taken into account — there will also be losses due to the hydraulic resistance of the pipes.
In the case when a pipe with a diameter of 1 inch is being laid, then we can proceed from the ratio of 1 meter of vertical = 10 meters of horizontal pipe laying. Usually pumping household stations are equipped with a corresponding branch pipe of this diameter. But if a ¾ inch pipe is laid, then it would be more correct to take a ratio of 1: 7. It is unlikely that anyone will think of using pipes of a smaller diameter — this is completely unreasonable.
The material used to manufacture pipes is also important — in steel, the hydraulic resistance is significantly greater than in plastic ones.
To make it easier for the reader, below is a calculator that will help you quickly calculate the required value of the depth of water intake, taking into account the laid pipeline and the required margin.
Water pressure generated by the pumping station
The pumping station is designed to provide the necessary water pressure at any of the points of consumption, up to the most remote, taking into account its features, that is, the minimum pressure required for correct operation. If it is just a mixer, then 1 ÷ 1.5 atmospheres will be enough there (respectively, 10 ÷ 15 meters of water column). But for some appliances, for example, for a shower stall, a hydromassage bath, an instantaneous water heater or other household appliances, more is required. This parameter must be specified in the technical specifications of the product.
Be sure to take into account the difference in the heights of the location of the pumping station and the point of water intake (in the diagram — green arrows and the letter H), the length of the horizontal sections of the internal water supply network, the material and diameter of the pipes.
Below is a calculator that will allow you to avoid complex calculations. Just enter the requested values — and get the result.
The operating range of the accumulating membrane tank is also directly related to the pressure generated. In the documentation of some models, it is indicated by two values — the upper and lower limits for the operation of the barometric relay. Models are available in which the adjustment of the water pressure values in the system can be carried out in a certain range and independently. As a rule, for visual control, the pumping station is equipped with a barometer.
Pump station performance
The next important parameter is how much the pumping station will be able to cope with the flow of water. Here you can count in different ways, for example, starting from the average daily consumption for each family member. However, it seems more correct to calculate peak consumption, which provides for the provision of water to all points of water intake in that unlikely, but still possible situation, when all of them are involved at the same time.
It is enough to sum up the values for all the water points in the house, take into account the correction factor for their number and convert to liters per minute or per hour (usually these are the parameters indicated in the passports of pumping equipment).
Qmax = ∑Q(1÷x) × Kx
Qmax — peak demand.
∑Q(1÷x) is the sum of water discharges from all draw-off points, from 1 to x.
Kx is a correction factor that takes into account the total number of water consumption points (x).
Kx is determined by the following expression:
Kx = 1 / √ (x‑1).
It should be correctly understood that the value obtained is indicative. It should not exceed the actual debit of the well (well) in any way in order to prevent airing of pumping equipment or shallowing and silting of the water source. If the actual flow rate should be less (based on the parameters of the source), then nevertheless, when choosing, one should proceed from it. Well, at home, you will have to solve the issue of consumption by any “administrative” measures in order to exclude the possibility of simultaneously opening all points of water intake.
Supply voltage and power consumption of pumping equipment
These selection criteria are not so important from the point of view of the operation of the pumping station itself, but from the point of view of laying an appropriate power line for it.
The vast majority of domestic pumping stations are equipped with electric drives operating on a single-phase AC 220 V. Very rarely, but still there are stations with three-phase motors (380 V) — these are powerful units designed for long-term and high-performance work to provide water to a large mansion or a whole riser at the entrance of a high-rise building.
The power of domestic pumping stations usually ranges from 500 to 2000 watts. In accordance with this, the cross section of the wires of the power line, the type of circuit breaker and safety device (RCD) will be selected.
As a rule, modern pumping stations are also equipped with their own emergency shutdown systems — from overheating, “dry” running (in the absence of water in the source or in the intake hose), short circuit or breakdown to ground, power surges, etc.
Hydrostorage tank volume
The larger the volume of the membrane tank, the less often the power plant will turn on, and the longer the pumping station itself will last. True, an increase in volume is always accompanied by an increase in the dimensions and weight of the entire installation (not everywhere there is enough free space for its installation), and an increase in the cost of the station. Therefore, some kind of “golden mean” is needed.
- The most popular, according to sales statistics, are pumping stations with a tank with a capacity of 24 liters — this is quite enough to provide water to a country house or organize an autonomous water supply system for the needs of 1–2 people.
The most “running” are pumping stations with a relatively small 24-liter membrane tank
- For a family of 3 ÷ 5 people, subject to constant use, a 50-liter hydraulic accumulator is usually enough — the engine will not turn on too often, and in addition, a quite impressive supply of water is created that can help out in the event of a sudden power outage.
- If 6 or more people live in the house, then, of course, you need to think about a more capacious accumulator — about 100 liters.
By the way, in some branded salons working with branded products, it is practiced to complete the pumping station with an accumulating capacity of the customer’s choice, based on specific needs.
If you look at the catalogs of pumping stations offered for sale, you can find installations with very small membrane tanks — sometimes the volume is only 2 liters. It is clear that it is at least naive to seriously consider such a container as a hydraulic accumulator — it serves, rather, to maintain the required pressure in the system, smoothing out hydraulic shocks. But the frequency of starting the pump with such a tank will be very high, and the apparent advantages in the cost of the station will be absolutely not justified — such a pump is unlikely to last for a long time.
- Pumping stations also differ in the material of manufacture of the housing.
— Pumps with cast iron casings are distinguished by a relatively low noise level and quite affordable price.
The disadvantage is the large mass of the product. In addition, although cast iron itself has good corrosion resistance, rusty deposits can form in water, especially with prolonged contact without movement. Manufacturers are trying to solve this problem by applying a special protective coating to the inner walls. When choosing a pumping station with a cast-iron casing, this aspect should be paid attention to.
- Stainless steel cases do not rust and are significantly lighter in weight.
However, they also have a significant drawback — such pumping stations are the most “noisy” during operation. In addition, their cost is significantly higher than devices with cast-iron cases.
- Models made of special high-strength plastic are gaining more and more popularity.
They, in fact, combine the advantages of both types listed above — they have a low noise level and perfect inertness in relation to water — they do not change its composition in any way. Many pumping stations in plastic design have additional anti-vibration protection.
- When buying, you should pay attention to the presence and placement of mounting brackets (stands), the method of mounting the station on the installation site in the selected location.
- The degree of protection of the body of the device from dust and water splashes is important. The higher the IP index, the better the station. The best choice would be to purchase an installation of at least IP54 class — this is almost complete protection of the electrical part of the pump from dust and water splashes.
- A convenient addition will be the built-in water filter — this will completely eliminate the wear or failure of the pump due to the possible ingress of solid suspensions from the source into the working chamber. However, nothing prevents you from installing a coarse filter at the inlet and on your own.
- And, finally, in the event that the pumping station, according to the owners, should have a certain mobility — it is planned to move it from place to place as needed, then you should pay attention to the mass of the product, its equipment with a carrying handle, the convenience and ease of quick preparation for work and transfer to the “stowed position”.
Brief overview of models of domestic pumping stations
Of course, the rating of the manufacturer should be considered the most important criterion for choosing pumping equipment. Such a purchase cannot be called cheap, it is made for several years in advance, and it would not be entirely reasonable to give money for an unknown product with vague warranty obligations.
Of the domestic brands, we can safely recommend pumping stations — they are perfectly adapted specifically to Russian operating conditions. The installations of the Vikhr and Zubr brands have a good reputation — these are also Russian developments, however, they are mainly let in at the production facilities of neighboring China. However, Chinese assembly is practiced and many Europeans in the production of pumping equipment are always considered German, Gardena, Grundfos, Metabo, Kärcher. High-quality reliable pumping stations of Italian, “Pedrollo”, “Ergus” are in high demand.
When choosing a specific manufacturer, it will never be out of place to clarify how service maintenance is organized in a given region, whether there are specialized centers where you can get technical support. It will be very disappointing if the purchased pumping station in your area is considered “exotic”, and any even trifling spare part will have to be ordered from somewhere far away.
Key elements affecting the operating life of a pumping station:
- Working wheel;
- stator winding;
- flange, as well as the quality of the membrane and the reliability of automation.
Depending on the type of electronic-mechanical unit, there are types of pumping stations and the principle of their operation.
The classic design most familiar to homeowners based on pressure switches. The water pressure switch is a water supply system automation device that automatically turns on and off the pump or pumping station when the water pressure changes. The relay has upper and lower thresholds. When the water pressure drops to the lower threshold, the pressure switch closes its contacts and supplies power to the pump, therefore, turns it on. When the pressure reaches the upper threshold, the relay opens the contacts and de-energizes the pump, turns it off. This mechanical device, with its high prevalence, is the most vulnerable control of pumping stations, as it is completely unprotected from various emergency situations. There is another type of pumping stations based on electronic units of various functionality.
Their main difference from stations with relays is protection against most emergency situations in the system:
- “dry running” — work without water;
- impeller jamming;
- low voltage in the mains;
- poor performance of the source, lowering the water level or its dynamic fluctuations;
- decrease in pressure in the accumulator;
There are manufacturers who specialize in the production of such pumping stations. The most famous of them are AQUAROBOT Adaptive and Universal.
The universal station, in addition to the relay, contains a flow sensor in its structure. The principle of operation is similar to stations with a relay. When the set maximum pressure value in the system is reached, the station turns off, and when the pressure drops to the minimum, it turns on. But, if for some reason the pump cannot create the set shut-off pressure in the system (lack of water in the suction line, low voltage of the mains, jamming of the pump impeller, improper installation of the station, etc.), the pump is controlled by the TURBI flow sensor.
Adaptive stations are equipped with an automation unit with a lower pressure threshold sensor and a flow sensor, as well as a restart function in case of an emergency stop. In the absence of water, the station will go into pre-alarm mode, then it will make 6 automatic test runs lasting 30 seconds each — after 5, 20, 60 minutes, then after 6, 12 and 24 hours. If water appears during any of the test runs, the station will automatically start and go into pumping mode.
This type of station is considered the most reliable, prolongs the life of the pump and the system itself, and also saves the consumer from unnecessary trouble.
Nuances of choice
The process of choosing a pumping station for a summer residence or your own home will not become difficult if you take into account a number of features that affect its operation:
- Performance. Products of companies known among consumers on the positive side do not create problems in work.
- Manufacturing material. Devices in the manufacture of which carbon steel is used have a long service life compared to plastic products.
- Correspondence between technical parameters and required characteristics. This applies to the size of the storage tank, the performance of the equipment and the depth of the aquifer.
- The presence of a system that protects against the possibility of overheating and dry running, which extends the service life.
What to look for when choosing?
The main problem that the dacha owner faces is which pumping station will be suitable for the dacha. In order not to make a mistake with the choice, you should listen to the recommendations of experts.
How to choose a pumping station for a summer residence:
- First of all, you need to calculate in advance the amount of water that you plan to spend while living in the country. Based on the results of the calculations, it is necessary to make a choice in favor of a tank of a suitable volume. If you need water not only for domestic needs, but also for watering plants, then you should choose a larger container.
- It is also necessary to determine the performance of the pumping station. The greater the need for water from the owner of the site, the more powerful pumping station you need to choose for your water supply system.
- Another point that requires attention is the depth of the aquifer. This parameter is also important, since it affects not only the choice of the type of pumping station, but also other power indicators.
While in the store and choosing a pumping station for your dacha, the main attention should be paid to parameters such as performance and pressure. In addition, the pressure that the station can produce during operation, taking into account losses, is important. They should be understood as a decrease in water pressure as it passes through pipes.
When deciding which mini-station to choose, it is necessary to pay attention to such a moment as the material of manufacture of the pump housing and tank. Most models are made of ordinary or stainless steel, as well as cast iron. The advantages of a stainless steel case is that it is resistant to corrosion processes. This allows the pump to be installed outdoors. The cast iron pump runs quietly. Its installation can be performed in one of the premises of the house. However, during operation it is necessary to periodically check the integrity of the coating.
Many modern models contain various additional features. For example, the pump may have a water filter or a dry running sensor. The second function is especially important, because in the absence of water supply, thanks to this option, the pump is turned off, which eliminates its overheating and premature failure.
It should be understood that the purchase and installation of pumping equipment for autonomous water supply systems is quite an expensive pleasure. Therefore, do not rush to purchase it. The task of buying a pump for the country must be approached thoroughly. It is better to spend money on a quality device of the required power than to suffer with an unreliable and weak device. Even before buying, you should decide which functions in the pumping station are the most important for you, and which ones you can do without.
When choosing a mini-pumping station for your site, attention should be paid to such a parameter as the source of water. Pumps can be installed on a well or on a well. If the distance to the water source is too large, then in this case you will have to spend money on borehole pump installation.
When choosing a pumping station for a summer residence, attention should also be paid to the accumulator. If the number of people living in the house is small, and the number of taps is insignificant, then it will be enough to purchase a 24-liter hydraulic tank. If the house has several sources of water intake at once, then in this case the best choice would be a 50-liter hydraulic accumulator. If the owner did not plan to use many sources of water, and additional ones appeared during the operation of the equipment, then this is not a big problem. You can install an additional accumulator with a capacity of 24 liters.
Advantages and disadvantages
If the selection of the pumping station is done correctly, it will be able to fully feed the autonomous water supply system. In addition to pumping water, it also maintains the required pressure.
Among the benefits are:
- the use of materials that are not subject to corrosion;
- long period of operation;
- the presence of a system that protects against dry running;
- complete installation, after which the equipment is ready for use;
- reduced noise level during operation;
- energy consumption in economy mode;
- availability of water in the tank.
There are also disadvantages:
- Most country pumping stations are capable of lifting liquid from a depth of 8 — 9 meters.
- When putting the equipment into operation, the hose is filled with water and the pressure switch is adjusted.
- Sensitivity to the presence of various contaminants, so you need to install a filter.
- The need to control the level of pressure.
Installation of equipment
A large or small pumping station is delivered to the distribution network assembled, fully prepared for operation. The buyer only needs to connect the equipment to the water-carrying structure and the suction pipeline. Before this, a check valve is installed on the suction pipe — it will retain water in the event of a power outage. A detailed diagram of connecting a pumping station in a private house allows you to do everything yourself.
If there are mechanical inclusions, a strainer is mounted. When installing the unit, shock-absorbing material is used to help reduce the vibration that occurs during its operation. The installation must be grounded. After the station is fully connected to the water supply, it is necessary to fill the suction pipeline and the pump housing with water using the filling plug.
After checking the tightness of the connection nodes, the pressure level is pumped through the fitting to the value recommended by the manufacturer. Only after that the unit is connected to the power supply. The room where the station is located must be heated. When placed in a mine, the cover is made double and insulated.
Types and types, connection features
The main working part of this equipment is the pump. It is its type that determines their main technical characteristics. Let’s talk about pumps.
Surface and submersible
Most of the stations supplied from factories in assembled form are equipped with surface pumps. They are installed on the same frame with a hydraulic accumulator and a control group. A pipeline is connected to the pump, which is lowered into a source — a well, a well, etc. This option is good because it can be used in narrow wells — the pipe diameter can be from 32 mm, which is normal even for the narrowest well. But such systems can raise water from a depth of about 7–10 meters.
Water supply scheme of a private house with a pumping station with a surface pump
When installing such equipment, a filter and a check valve must be installed at the end of the supply pipeline immersed in water. A filter (mesh) is required, since pumps are demanding on water quality, and a check valve prevents water from draining while pumping is in progress. Without these two parts, the system works inefficiently.
If the well is deep, a submersible pump or installation with an external ejector is required. In this case, the ejector is lowered into the well or well, two hoses are connected to it. The rest of the equipment is on the surface. With such a system, water can rise from a depth of 40–45 meters.
A pumping station with an external — submersible ejector allows you to get water from deep wells or wells up to 40–45 m deep
The disadvantage of this system is that it does not like the presence of air in the pipes (hoses), which is why starting the system is a troublesome and responsible event.
Quiet and noisy
The internal design of the pumps also differs. The noise level during operation depends on their structure.
- Vortex. The suction force is created by the blades inside the body. These pumping water supply stations for the home are silent or very quiet, but they can only raise water from a shallow depth. They can and should be installed in residential buildings: they really do not like temperature changes, and when they freeze, they fail.
- Centrifugal pumps make a lot of noise during operation, but they pump water from decent depths and can operate at different temperatures, therefore they can be installed in specially equipped pits.
Before choosing a pumping station, it is desirable:
- Decide on the purpose of buying a device, since its power and other parameters depend on it.
- Perform the calculations that are needed to compare with the technical parameters of the unit.
- Choose a model according to the advice of experts.
- Keep in mind that equipment with a metal case has a higher price compared to plastic models, but it will pay off due to a long period of operation and savings in service costs.
The device must be installed according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
B. Station Capabilities
This question is much more difficult. What to consider?
Features of the well (well)
- Depth of water intake.
- Her static level.
- Debit (in other words, filling rate).
Someone looks at power, someone is interested in performance. Of course, there will not be a single recommendation, since these parameters are interrelated. Basically, all budget devices at a depth of 10 m will provide a fence. Here you need to focus on a combination of a number of factors — pressure (pillar height), reservoir capacity, intensity of water use, station distance from the source, and some others.
The issue of performance is worth noting especially. In principle, this is the amount of liquid that this device is capable of pumping over a certain period of time. But it makes no sense to take the model “with a margin”. Firstly, do not forget about the electric / energy meter, which will “turn” faster. Secondly, the more powerful the pump, the faster the well will “drain”, and this is no longer “very good”.
How to proceed?
The easiest option is to talk to the owners of the plots in your holiday village. What kind of pumps they have at the stations and everything else. Where is the water pumped from, enough for irrigation or not. There are many nuances, but it is possible to come to a common denominator.
If you need an accurate calculation, you will have to contact the experts. But is it necessary, given that we are not talking about such an expensive purchase as a car or an apartment? In principle, the manager in the store (if he is really knowledgeable) will be able to help you make the right choice. But for this he will need the initial data (depth and debit — in the first place). Those who are interested in how to determine the level of groundwater will find a detailed answer here.
Calculate everything yourself. Approximate data: for irrigation — up to 1.5 m³ / hour. As they say, “behind the eyes.” This is equivalent to a capacity of about 3 l/s. Such a characteristic is reflected in the passport of the device. And during breaks, it is enough to quickly fill the spare container.
Practice shows that for a summer resident who comes to the site to engage in gardening / gardening, and not washing, swimming in the pool, etc., a station with a capacity of 0.7 — 1.2 kW is quite enough.
Quite a logical conclusion to the story is to answer the question, how much does a “dacha” station model cost approximately? Naturally, speaking of inexpensive models, it is advisable to pay attention to Russian-made products. It is rare among imported ones to be both good and cheap at the same time. Is it Chinese installations, but this is more likely for “extreme lovers”.
Meanwhile, there are also our, domestic, units that work reliably and, most importantly, the owners do not have any problems with spare parts and repair of this equipment.
Under this brand, there are many installations on sale that differ mainly in characteristics. For example, the model of the ASV-800/19 series, costing 7,359 rubles, provides a capacity of 60 l / min with a maximum liquid intake depth of 9 m (power 0.8 kW, hydraulic accumulator 19 liters). It will fully fulfill its functions if there is no more than 25 — 30 m between it and the source. What else is needed for a summer residence? And this despite the fact that the power supply is 1 f 220 V (from a conventional outlet).
A more powerful model (for example, ASV-1200 / 24N) for 1.2 kW with a 24-liter battery costs about 8,650 rubles.
And these are only 2 units from the entire range of “Whirlwinds”. The choice is really big, for every taste.