Energy supply is one of the most important issues that a developer has to solve. The safety and comfort of all residents depend on its design and subsequent arrangement. Not everyone can correctly select the elements and combine them into a common system. The easiest way is to entrust this to professionals, but you can do it yourself. We will analyze the main points of designing and installing the wiring diagram in a private house.
All about the design and installation of electrical wiring
How to design an electrical network
— Way of laying the electrical cable
— Input voltage type
– Power calculation
— Selection of electrical wires
— Division into groups
— Choice of input method
— Laying trails
— Finishing work
How to design a home electrical network
- Calculation of power consumption.
- Calculation of the cross section of electrical wires.
- Calculation of lightning protection and grounding system.
- Scheme-drawing of electrical wiring.
- Layout plan for power equipment and electrical cables.
- Estimate for the purchase of necessary materials.
Only specialists from a company licensed to carry out project activities can correctly prepare documentation.
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The main points of drawing up a diagram
Let’s analyze the main points of design.
Cable laying method
There may be two options.
If it is impossible to use the closed method, apply
Determining the type of input voltage
To properly design electrical wiring,
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Based on the calculated power, the cross section of the electrical wiring is selected. It is best to do this on the basis of special tables. However, there is another solution.
- Socket groups — 3 * 2.5 mm².
- Lighting contours — 3 * 2 mm² or 3 * 1.5 mm².
- Air conditioner 5 kW and below — 3 * 2.5 mm².
- Air conditioning above 5 kW — 3 * 4 mm².
- Electric oven or stove — 3 * 4 mm².
- Electric boiler — 3 * 4 mm² or more (guided by the manufacturer’s recommendations).
Division into lines-consumption groups
How to get electricity into a building
At the site of the input of electricity into the building, an input distribution panel is equipped. It is placed inside a heated room. On the one hand, a street input cable is connected to the shield, on the other hand, wiring from all groups of internal consumers. You can equip two electrical panels. A common RCD, a counter and a knife switch are built into the first. All of them must have an increased degree of moisture protection, since the equipment is installed outside. The second electrical panel is mounted indoors, it is “responsible” for the internal wiring.
In any case, the connection of the input cable is carried out by the network company.
You can bring electricity underground. For this, an electric cable is laid at a depth of 80–100 cm. It is inserted into a steel or plastic pipe. This protects it from damage. To enter the house, a hole is hollowed out in the wall or in the foundation.
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The wiring diagram for each house is individual. But
- The first element after the input section is a knife switch. It makes it possible to de-energize the house if necessary.
- After it, an electric meter is mounted.
- The third set general automatic protection.
- After it, branches are arranged for all consumer groups. Be sure to install a circuit breaker or RCD on each of them.
In addition, according to the instructions, two separate tires must be present in the shield: N (or “zero”) and PE (or “ground”). The electrical wires extending from them form two separate circuits that never connect or intersect.
- The network is divided into several groups that protect circuit breakers or RCDs. A single circuit is possible if only a few switches or sockets are included in it.
- For energy-intensive powerful devices, dedicated lines with protective automation are equipped.
- Electric wires are laid only vertically and horizontally: perpendicular or parallel to the ceiling and floor.
- The angle of rotation of the wire is made only straight. Diagonal placement is prohibited.
- Power lines are laid at a distance of at least 150–200 mm from door and window openings.
- The distance from gas communications to the power grid cannot be less than 200 mm.
- The minimum distance from the socket block to the level of the finished floor is 35–40 cm.
- Switchboards are installed at a height of 150–170 cm. This is convenient for maintenance, and is also childproof.
- The use of grounding is mandatory.
Do-it-yourself wiring installation features in a private house
After the plan-scheme is drawn up, proceed to the installation. You can do everything with your own hands. An important point.
Beat off the levels of the finishing ceiling and floor with a paint cord, if the marking is carried out before the start of finishing work. Beat off the levels of placement of switches and sockets, the main line of the socket circuit and the lighting circuit. Outline the position of the electrical panel and the paths for the passage of highways from it to consumers. Mark all routes with the width and depth of future strobes. Mark the position of all electrical appliances. Check the markup with the plan.
2. Preparing the strobe
Cut out a niche for the electrical panel. With a crown of the required diameter, drill holes for mounting boxes for switches and sockets, for junction boxes. Punch channels for electrical cables. If necessary, punch holes into other rooms for wiring to pass through. Clean dust from strobes, niches and holes. Prime them with a deep penetration primer.
3. System installation
Install the electrical panel in the prepared niche. Lay the cable in the grooves. If the project requires, first place it in the corrugated pipe. Lay the electrical cable in the direction from the junction box to the shield. Be sure to secure the wiring inside the strobe with special clamps or clips. At the end of the laying, check the plan and photograph the position of the strobe. Install mounting and junction boxes. Connect the wiring sections, connect consumer groups to the electrical panel. Check the correct operation of the system.
4. Finishing work
Seal the strobes with a plaster mixture. Let it dry and sand it down. Insulate bare wiring in junction boxes, lay inside the cavity. In this form, they should be until the end of the finishing work. Cover the junction boxes with lids, if there are none, seal them with masking tape. After the finish is completed, install the mechanisms of switches and sockets, install dimmers, hang lamps.
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