Interior partitions and their features
By type of construction
- With sliding door pocket
- From tongue-and-groove gypsum boards
- Porous ceramic
Legal aspects of redevelopment
How to avoid mistakes
By type of construction
Masonry partitions are erected from building blocks and bricks. When choosing a material, consider the allowable load on interfloor ceilings. For floors made of precast concrete slabs, which are used in most city houses, the allowable loads are 400–800 kgf / m².
In the case of the use of hollow, porous and other light building blocks, the mass does not reach the limit. But the possibility of using brickwork will have to be clarified with the housing inspection authorities. The fact is that brick walls are too heavy — about 550 kg per meter of length when laid in half a brick. Together with the floor screed, they can exert unacceptable loads on the floors.
The main condition for reliability is the correct reinforcement.
Every second row of foam concrete blocks is reinforced with bars with a diameter of 8 mm. They are laid in fines, and vertically the blocks are connected with galvanized steel plates, located in increments of 100–120 cm.
Masonry from solid tongue-and-groove gypsum boards is reinforced with plates and corners, from hollow ones — corners and vertical reinforcing bars.
A porous block structure may not be reinforced, but builders usually reinforce it with vertical rods. The structure must be attached to the adjacent walls and the upper floor slab. To do this, use reinforcing pins, plates or staples made of steel with a thickness of at least 2 mm. The step of fastening to the walls should not exceed 500 mm, to the ceiling — 1200 mm.
An important requirement for a new wall is its soundproofing ability. The minimum airborne sound insulation index Rw is 43 dB. That is, because of them, calm speech should not be heard. The Rw index of a wall plastered on both sides with a thickness of half a brick is 47 dB, with a foam block thickness of 200 mm — 44 dB. But in practice, they usually tend to make it thinner. In this case, plasterboard sheathing along the crate will help, between the racks of which there are noise-absorbing mats that provide additional sound insulation up to 10 dB.
The design can transmit structural noise from the ceilings into the room. To prevent this from happening, a thin-layer vibration-damping material is placed under the base or bed seam. The space between the top row of bricks or blocks and the top slab should be filled with polyurethane foam. In addition, the quality of the masonry is of great importance — cavities and even microcracks in the seams and junctions can significantly reduce the airborne sound insulation index.
Finally, in order to achieve good sound insulation, you need to choose and install the door correctly:
- a sash or transom with conventional single glass will worsen this parameter by 5–7 dB;
- a gap under the canvas of 20 mm — by about 8 dB;
- sliding door without side and top brush seals — by more than 10 dB.
Doors and partitions
To the list of anti-trends: 4 models of interior partitions that will ruin the interior
The masonry must rest directly on the floor slab. It should be erected to the floor screed device, and later, damping pads should be installed at the junction of the screed to the partition. In extreme cases, it is allowed to install from cellular blocks supported by a completely dried cement-sand or expanded clay concrete screed. But only if there is no layer of noise-absorbing mats or polymer membranes under it.
The masonry partition creates a significant load on the ceiling — it may not withstand the pressure and sag. To prevent this from happening, a monolithic reinforced concrete plinth with a height of at least 100 mm should be erected on top of the floor slab along the construction line. Laying begins when it gains at least 70% strength — 2 weeks after pouring concrete.
The plinth performs the function of a stiffener: it strengthens the slab and shifts the load to the areas of its support on load-bearing walls or columns. This element can be dispensed with only if the overlap has a large margin of safety — then the laying is carried out along the bed seam. Experts advise placing a damper tape under the basement or the first row of masonry, which compensates for shrinkage deformations and blocks the path of structural noise.
It is advisable to purchase a ready-made adhesive mixture recommended by the manufacturer of the selected blocks or slabs. The composition of such a mixture includes setting retarders and plasticizers. Thanks to this, it is easier to lay the masonry, the rows are even, and the seams are solid, which has a positive effect on strength and soundproofing ability.
Any partition is attached to the main walls and ceiling with reinforcing pins, depending on the thickness and density of the material used. Tongue-and-groove gypsum boards are fastened with perforated corners vertically. Walls made of porous ceramic or expanded clay concrete blocks are reinforced with vertical embedded bars.
The gap between the bottom surface of the ceiling and the top should not exceed 40 mm. This gap is often filled with polyurethane foam, but it is better to use cementitious adhesive.
It is desirable to make openings of standard sizes so that there are no difficulties with installing doors. The upper jumpers can be made of reinforcing bars, angles or reinforced blocks. With a thickness of less than 100 mm, vertical reinforcement of the openings with reinforcing bars, strips or corners is required.
With frame technology, it is possible to build internal structures of any shape. A metal profile is most often used as a frame, and drywall is used as a sheathing. Inside such a wall, a soundproof barrier made of mineral wool is placed. For hanging shelves or mirrors in the frame, embedded parts are provided.
Niches are made using the same technology, but their minimum dimensions are limited by the possibility of tightening self-tapping screws during installation. The bases of wide shelves or niches are reinforced with a guide profile, making jumpers from it. To improve the strength and airborne noise insulation index, the frame is made double.
When erecting internal structures, it is worth giving preference to those materials that do not require alignment: gypsum boards or plasterboard. Plastering surfaces with alignment for finishing, especially for painting, increases the cost of repairs and refers to dirty construction processes.
Soundproofing of a frame partition
To fill voids, use special sound-absorbing materials. This will provide an airborne noise isolation index in the range of 44–46 dB.
Achieving a higher level of sound insulation allows sheathing on each side with two layers of drywall, between which a sheet of technical cork is laid. The partition on a double spaced frame has the highest performance, but its minimum thickness is 135 mm.
Soundproofing the floor under the screed: choose the materials and do it yourself
Sliding room dividers are the easiest option to install. Their installation does not require redevelopment and construction work, installation is quick. There are disadvantages: they do not help to improve sound insulation, they are inferior in strength to other options.
Types of sliding interior partitions:
- with rail mechanism on the floor and ceiling;
- without threshold — fastening only to the ceiling;
- folding — accordion door;
- inclined sliding — they need to be taken away from you and then moved to the side.
The most common material for them is glass and wood. Glass ones do not visually overload the space, but require regular cleaning and are not suitable for repair. Wooden ones are more often used for decorative purposes, for visual zoning of a room.
With sliding door pocket
If you need to make the design thinner, use a ready-made sliding door case as a base. The thickness of the structure, taking into account the plasterboard sheathing, does not exceed 125 mm. A partition with a frame made of conventional U‑shaped profiles will cost 1.5–2 times cheaper, but it cannot be made thinner than 170 mm.
Hollow frame walls do not isolate sound well, therefore, when arranging a bedroom, it is better to use structures consisting of a masonry partition 80 mm thick and a frame pencil case superimposed on it.
We zone correctly: 8 ideal partitions for studio apartments
The possibility of conducting brickwork will have to be clarified with the housing inspection authorities. Brick options are too heavy — about 550 kg per meter of length when laid in half a brick. Together with the floor screed, they can exert unacceptable loads on the floors.
In addition to significant loads on interfloor floors, laying brick walls is associated with serious time costs and requires professional skills.
If you want to create a loft-style interior, then you can create an imitation of a brick niche by finishing a block or frame structure with brick-like tiles. Corner elements of artificial stone will allow you to achieve a complete illusion of the thickness of brickwork or natural stone.
Foam blocks with a density of 600–800 kg / m³ and a thickness of 80–100 mm are suitable for construction. A smaller thickness is insufficient in terms of sound insulation and resistance to cantilever loads. However, the walls of foam blocks require plastering. For this reason, it will be difficult to create a small decorative niche, since you will have to cut the blocks to size, plaster the surfaces. Expanded clay concrete partition blocks are moisture resistant and durable, but do not differ in geometric dimensions. Such masonry is done only by professionals, and in any case, the surfaces will have to be leveled with rather thick plaster layers.
From tongue-and-groove gypsum boards
Plasterboard tongue-and-groove slabs are larger than foam blocks, but you can create decorative niches with them. Thanks to the tongue-and-groove connection, the structures are stable. They do not require reinforcement, only anchoring to the walls and reinforcing the corners with plaster corners made of galvanized steel. The disadvantage of the material is that it is difficult to saw. Therefore, when sizing, it is necessary to remove the grooves and ridges, and then reinforce the masonry with reinforcing bars or plates. But the walls of foam blocks let steam through, that is, they breathe. Moreover, gypsum contains water and acts as a humidity regulator in rooms with normal humidity.
Tongue-and-groove gypsum boards weigh significantly more than concrete blocks, so they are only suitable for houses whose floors are designed for a distributed load of more than 800 kg / m2.
Another disadvantage is high elasticity. Because of it, a drum effect appears — a relatively low level of sound insulation at frequencies of 100–200 Hz.
Porous ceramic blocks are 2–2.5 times lighter than bricks and at the same time hold fasteners well. If you use chemical anchors, then even suspended plumbing can be mounted on a 130 mm thick wall.
The large format of the blocks speeds up the laying, the grooves and ridges on the side ends strengthen the partition, and the ribbed surface ensures reliable adhesion to the plaster layer.
The disadvantages of porous blocks include a relatively high water absorption. This problem can be solved with the help of a water-repellent primer and cement plaster.
The plasterboard construction practically does not load the ceiling, does not require laborious plastering and allows you to lay wires and pipes hidden without any problems.
In recent years, when assembling frames of plasterboard structures, instead of the usual fastening with self-tapping screws, a notch is more often used: a hole with bent edges is made with a special tool resembling pliers in two contacting walls of the profiles. Fixing with a cutter speeds up installation, in addition, there are no protruding screw heads on the frame, and the drywall sheet lies perfectly evenly on it. However, when fastening with a cutter, it is more difficult to correct errors, and besides, it is less durable, so it is important to observe the required screw pitch — 250 mm.
Doors and partitions
How to make a drywall partition with your own hands: step by step instructions
Legal notice of redevelopment
The redevelopment must first be agreed with the housing inspection authorities. If the design calculation shows an increase in the load on the floor, then it will be difficult to obtain permission, since a technical opinion from the house designer will be required.
- Redevelopment that affects load-bearing walls or unloading non-bearing partitions can only be started after obtaining permission from the housing inspection authorities.
- When redevelopment, it is impossible to increase the load on the floors in excess of the allowable for the project (calculation for bearing capacity, for deformations).
- It is difficult to agree on the replacement of the partition with a heavier one.
- They will not allow redevelopment, in which your bathroom will be above the kitchen or living room of the apartment below. This rule also works for the arrangement of apartments in monolithic new buildings, where new walls of wet zones are erected according to the floor plan.
Doors and partitions
Internal partitions in a wooden house: 3 types and construction tips
How to avoid installation errors
A common mistake when arranging interior partitions is their incorrect location. The owner of the apartment may incorrectly assess the dimensions of the room (for example, a dressing room), the architect may not understand the wishes of the customer, the foreman may read the plan incorrectly, the workers may see the “wrong mark”. The wall has to be dismantled and rebuilt, time wasted and costs increased. Therefore, it is highly desirable for the owner of the apartment, together with the architect (designer), armed with a plan and a tape measure, to come to the site in order to control the laying of the first rows.
|Material||Solid red brick||Slotted red brick||Porous ceramic block||Aerated concrete block||Hollow claydite-concrete block||GWP hydrophobized|
|The minimum possible thickness of the partition, mm||65 (brick on edge)||120||80||fifty||90||80|
|Optimal thickness of the interior partition, mm||120 (in half a brick)||120||120||100||120||100|
|Masonry mortar||Cement-sand grade not lower than M200||Cement-sand grade not lower than M200||From ready-mixed cement, e.g. Porotherm||From the finished cement mixture (KNAUF LM2, Blockstar FIX, etc.)||Cement-sand grade not lower than M200||Finished gypsum (KNAUF-Perlfix, Volma Montazh, Ivsil-Plast, etc.)|
|Water absorption, %||6–14||6–14||14–18||fifty||ten||6–8|
Source: Ideas for Your Home Magazine#228