The way the reinforcing structure is made depends on many factors: the material of the walls, the width and location of the opening, the number of storeys of the building, etc. It is allowed to cut openings of arbitrary sizes and shapes in non-load-bearing partitions. Photo: profine Group
What dismantling works are required to be coordinated, and which are not?
It is not necessary to obtain permission only for dismantling built-in furniture: cabinets, mezzanines that do not form independent (that is, included in the BTI documentation) premises, as well as for the demolition (full and partial) of non-bearing partitions. Note that in the second case, after the completion of the work, a change in the plan of the apartment will still have to be formalized with the housing supervision authorities.
Any redevelopment affecting the load-bearing structures of the building and / or associated with an increase in the load on the floors must be approved by the Housing Inspectorate. This requirement applies, in particular, to the device, changing the location or size or sealing openings in load-bearing walls, as well as the dismantling of non-bearing partitions that receive an additional excess load of the ceiling (unloading).
Before starting dismantling work, you should seek advice from the one-stop shop. Take with you a copy of the plan of the apartment, having previously noted the projected changes on it, and you will be consulted on the approval procedure.
During dismantling, it is prohibited:
- Construct openings, cut niches, punch holes in pylon walls, diaphragm walls and columns (racks, pillars), as well as at the locations of ligaments between prefabricated elements.
- Arrange openings between living rooms and gasified kitchens without a tightly closing door, as well as combine gasified premises with residential ones.
- Eliminate natural ventilation channels and reduce their cross section.
- Increase the load on the supporting structures in excess of those allowed by the project (calculation by bearing capacity, by deformations) when replacing partitions made of light materials with similar ones from heavy ones.
- Transfer heating radiators connected to the general house hot water supply and (or) central heating system to loggias, balconies and verandas.
- Make grooves in horizontal seams and under internal wall panels, as well as in wall panels and floor slabs for the placement of electrical wiring, pipelines (in standard series houses).
Who is responsible for demolition work?
Only a specialized company that has a corresponding certificate issued by SRO NP “Association of General Contractors in Construction”. The prices of such companies are quite high, but there is no alternative, because a random team can cause irreparable damage to the building. Often, such “masters” are armed with only a low-power puncher, a small grinder and a sledgehammer, and most often it is the latter that is used. Strong vibrations that occur with this method of dismantling have a detrimental effect on all nearby structures of the house: the adhesion of concrete to reinforcement weakens, interpanel seams diverge, and communications may suffer. Even improper storage of wall fragments (with an increase in the local load on the ceiling) can lead to deformation and displacement of the building’s load-bearing elements.
What is the technology for arranging openings in load-bearing walls?
The order of work is always described in detail in the redevelopment project. In the standard version, first, with the help of spacer racks, the ceiling is hung above the opening in order to partially unload the wall. Then, with a wall saw, a cut is made along the contour of the future opening (if the wall thickness is more than 220 mm, a concrete chain saw is used). Then, in the dismantled section of the wall, several rows of holes are drilled with a diamond drill. After that, a fragment of the wall is destroyed by a hydrocline, gradually removing small parts (weighing up to 30 kg). The perforator refines the opening in the corners, where the cut made by the disc has insufficient depth.
As a rule, the design organization lays down the strengthening of the opening in the documentation. For this purpose, a metal structure is welded from corners, I‑beams, tees, channels and pipes. The method and procedure for its installation for each case is individual. For example, sometimes in the wall above the future opening, grooves are first made on both sides, into which two channels are placed and bolted together, thus forming a lintel beam. Then, again, the side ones are installed in the bars and only then a fragment of the wall is removed.
The way the reinforcing structure is made depends on many factors: the material of the walls, the width and location of the opening, the number of storeys of the building, etc. Photo: Slom-Service
Is it allowed to demolish a fragment of the wall under the window overlooking the balcony or loggia?
Such a solution is not always acceptable. It all depends on the method of fastening the carrier plate of the balcony or loggia. In many typical houses (mostly built in the 1960s–1970s), the balcony slab is hung out as a cantilever, not connected to the main floor, and is held by the front panel being pinched (jammed). By removing a fragment of this panel, you risk losing the balcony (especially if you take into account the general wear of the structure).
In most new buildings, such redevelopment is possible, but only according to an agreed project.
We emphasize that a wide opening between the loggia and the room cannot be left open. The problem is solved by installing a translucent partition (including a sliding one) at this place, which is not inferior in terms of resistance to heat transfer to the windows of living rooms.
Instead of a window and a balcony door, in some cases it is possible to install a sliding or folding “portal” with double-glazed windows. Photo: Moscow Windows
What is a sanitary cabin and how to dismantle it?
A sanitary cabin is a ready-made block-room of lightweight construction, which is lowered by a tower crane onto the floors of the building under construction. Until the early 1990s. its walls and ceiling were made of asbestos-cement slabs on a wooden frame, and the floor-pallet was made of heavy concrete. Later, asbestos-cement slabs were replaced with monolithic reinforced gypsum 50 mm thick.
Dismantling the plumbing cabin is a rather time-consuming process that can only be carried out at the initial stages of repair, before the finishing work starts. The cabin is destroyed gradually, beating off small fragments and sawing the reinforcing cage. The main thing is not to allow significant shock loads on the floor and not to damage the water and sewer pipes. Such works cost from 12 thousand rubles. plus 3–4 thousand rubles. for the removal of construction debris.
Source: Ideas for Your Home Magazine#4