You can repair the refrigerator yourself, but for this you need to have certain skills and knowledge. An important part of the preparation for the repair is diagnostics, and for this you need to know the principle of operation of the refrigerator. Let’s try to figure out how the scheme of operation of this common household device is organized.
Refrigerator operation scheme
The refrigerator can be divided into three large components. The failure of one unit makes the entire refrigerator inoperable, but does not affect the working condition of other elements. The freezer consists of an evaporator, a condenser and a compressor. The compressor includes a relay and a motor.
The system of work is closed. The refrigerant is pumped out of the evaporator by means of a compressor, and then supplied by it under high pressure to the condenser. In the condenser, it undergoes cooling, which promotes the transition from a gaseous state to a liquid state, and then again moves to the evaporator, draining naturally. So the work is repeated continuously.
Unlike other components, the compressor is not constantly on. It comes into operation by a signal from the temperature sensor when the temperature in the refrigerator exceeds the permissible limit. In this case, the relay drives the motor, as a result of which the compressor begins to perform its working function. When the temperature begins to correspond to the norm, the relay turns off.
Compressor health check
The first external sign of a compressor malfunction is an increase in temperature in the refrigerator compartment, up to its defrosting. Before you start repairing the compressor with your own hands, you need to figure out what exactly the malfunction of this device is. Getting to the compressor is not so easy — it is hermetically sealed by a casing, where it is in oil.
Most compressors have a similar device. The main components are the motor and the starting relay. The relay closes when a signal is received from the sensor and starts the motor. If the motor does not start, then the system is not functioning. In most cases, the problem with an idle compressor lies precisely in the motor. In such a situation, it is required to install a new motor, a complete replacement of the refrigerator compressor is needed a little less often. Let’s analyze the cases when it is easiest to repair and replace the refrigerator compressor.
Current and resistance test
The cause of the malfunction can be a cable, it is not so rare that a banal break becomes a source of serious problems. Replacing the cable is the easiest situation to repair. In any case, before starting any work with your own hands, you need to check the current and resistance so as not to get injured.
To check the resistance, you need to find a place without paint or wipe it off a little with your own hands. Attach a multimeter to the contact and to the case, the device should not show any values, otherwise it is quite dangerous to continue repairing the refrigerator compressor with your own hands. When working with the motor and the starting relay, precautions must be observed.
To check the current, you need a working relay, that is, before starting the tests, you must be sure that it is working. It is most convenient to check the current with a multimeter, where the contact is made with tongs. With an engine power of 140 W, the current is 1.3 amperes. The ratio of values remains the same for other indicators of engine power.
See also - Connecting the refrigerator compressor to a new device
Causes of malfunctions
All malfunctions in the operation of the device can be divided into two types. In the first case, everything works well at first glance, that is, the motor is buzzing, the light is on. The reason may be a refrigerant leak, it is quite easy to check this with your own hands. It is enough to touch the capacitor, it should be very hot. In the event of a refrigerant leak, the condenser will be at room temperature. The second common cause is a breakdown of the thermostat, that is, a signal about an increase in temperature simply does not arrive.
If the refrigerator does not turn on at all, then in 20% of cases the problem comes down to a motor breakdown. If the motor is working, but it is necessary to repair the refrigerator compressor with your own hands, you need to sequentially check the main elements — the temperature sensor and the relay. Each device should be replaced if it breaks down. If everything works well, you need to change the compressor itself, we will tell you how to do it yourself.
How to replace the compressor?
To repair the compressor with your own hands, you need to prepare the appropriate tools:
- freon storage;
- valves for piercing and selection;
It is recommended to use an oxy-propane burner. Now you need to disconnect the device from the electrical network, free it from food and boxes with bars, and then proceed with the repair work.
The compressor must be pulled out and slightly lifted and the filling pipe broken. The device starts for five minutes, during which the freon completely passes into the condenser. A piercing valve is connected to which a hose from the cylinder is connected. The valve is unscrewed for 30 seconds, this time is enough to collect all the gas.
Instead of a filling pipe, it is necessary to solder a copper pipe, it is for this purpose that a burner is used, but you can also use an ordinary soldering iron. Then, an incision several centimeters long is made on the capillary expander, then the tube breaks, and the filter is soldered from the condenser.
Now you need to completely disconnect the compressor from the pipes (most often there are two of them — to pressurize and suck out excess gas), that is, the compressor must be unsoldered. To install a new compressor, you must repeat all the steps in reverse order. After all work, make sure that the relay works. If the launch was successful, then everything was done correctly.