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Pointe steps Easy Rise
The instal­la­tion of the stairs is some­what rem­i­nis­cent of the assem­bly of a chil­dren’s design­er

Pointe steps
Pho­to by K. Manko
The stair­case on the bolts will add sophis­ti­ca­tion even to the mod­est inte­ri­or of the hall­way

Pointe steps
Pho­to by K. Manko
The design eas­i­ly and accu­rate­ly fits even into the curved space

Pointe steps
The spac­er is usu­al­ly made adjustable and made of steel or durable plas­tic.

Pointe steps
Bolts are placed at a dis­tance 40–60mm from the edge of the step (“Met­al — Design”)

Pointe steps
Pho­to by K. Manko
Even stone steps with bolts can seem light and grace­ful.

Pointe stepsKen­ngott
Light wood stair­case with bolts cre­ates a fes­tive feel­ing

Pointe steps
Sup­port bolts for the first stage are attached to the bear­ing floor

Pointe stepsJSCB Tech­nomir
Pointe steps Easy Rise
An option for attach­ing the upper step to the floor slab using a ris­er (a) and con­struct­ing rail­ings that per­ceive part of the total load act­ing on the flight of stairs (b)

Pointe steps
Pho­to by K. Manko,
E. Kuliba­by
Rely­ing on the bolts made it pos­si­ble to cre­ate an exquis­ite spi­ral stair­case that does not obscure the front hall.

Pointe steps
Brack­et with a spe­cial sound­proof sleeve that damp­ens the vibra­tion of steps (“Stairs. Hitech”)

Pointe steps

Pointe steps
The design of the sup­port nodes:

a- con­nec­tion to the wall;
b- Boltse con­nec­tion;
one- plas­tic sleeve,
2- brack­et;
3- anchor bolt;
four- depre­ci­ate-
resilient pad, 5- steps; 6- screw;
7- pain;
8 — tele­scop­ic tube;
9- wash­er

Pointe steps
Pho­to by K. Manko
In the design of the stairs, the bolts work togeth­er with the kosour

Pointe stepsMet­al — Design
Pointe stepsCrys­tal SC
The mas­sive con­struc­tion of the can­tilever stair­case (a) is infe­ri­or in ele­gance to the stair­case on the rails (b)

Pointe stepsCrys­tal SC
The orig­i­nal sym­bio­sis of the bolt and spi­ral stair­cas­es

Pointe stepsCM2 Square
A sol­id handrail and a pow­er­ful bow­string empha­size the ener­getic dynamism of the bolt stair­case.

Pointe steps
Handrail “rope” suit­able for design in a roman­tic style

Pointe steps
Trans­par­ent acrylic steps are as durable as wood­en ones

If archi­tec­ture, as Goethe argued,- this is frozen music, then its ele­ments can be com­pared with mate­ri­al­ized melodies. True, many archi­tec­tur­al forms, unlike music, lack the feel­ing of flight. BUTbecause mod­ern tech­nolo­gies make it pos­si­ble to cre­ate authen­tic bal­let suites from met­al, wood, glass and stone that amaze the imag­i­na­tion.

Pointe steps
Pho­to by K. Manko Stairs- the most impor­tant ele­ments of any home. They give dynam­ics to the archi­tec­ture of the facades and bring orig­i­nal­i­ty to the inte­ri­or design. Mod­ern trends in con­struc­tion- this is open­ness, visu­al light­ness and swift­ness of spa­tial vol­umes, includ­ing stairs. Flights of stairs should not block the flow of day­light, cre­ate gloomy zones, split the build­ing into closed rooms-wells. How­ev­er, one can­not but admit that mon­u­men­tal heav­i­ness is char­ac­ter­is­tic of tra­di­tion­al march­ing struc­tures. Spi­ral stair­cas­es have their own aes­thet­ic advan­tages, but are not so con­ve­nient for move­ment. ATXXin. mid-flight and spi­ral stair­cas­es have wor­thy com­peti­tors- con­struc­tions on the bolts. For the first time, a new sup­port sys­tem was used by the com­pa­ny Ken­ngott (Ger­many)- one of the world’s lead­ing man­u­fac­tur­ers of stairs of var­i­ous types. ATIn our coun­try, such struc­tures appeared in the mid-90s. In a rel­a­tive­ly short time, the inno­va­tion has gained a lot of admir­ers both in the cir­cles of pro­fes­sion­al archi­tects and design­ers, and among pri­vate devel­op­ers and home­own­ers.

Use­ful infor­ma­tion

When design­ing lad­ders on rails, safe­ty, func­tion­al­i­ty and ergonom­ics require­ments must be observed. Accord­ing to cur­rent reg­u­la­tions (SNiP 2.08.01- 89 * “Res­i­den­tial build­ings”) the angle of ascent (descent) of the flight of stairs should not go beyond 30–40. With a steep­ness of more than 45 the move­ment on the stairs is com­pli­cat­ed (espe­cial­ly the descent). Slop­ing struc­tures (less than 25) take up too much space and are more like­ly to be clas­si­fied as ramps. The dimen­sions of the steps are usu­al­ly tak­en based on the slope of the march. ATIn Rus­sia, the fol­low­ing para­me­ters of tread (width) and ris­er (height) are most com­mon­ly used: 300150, 280160, 270180mm. How­ev­er, cus­tom made stairs can have ris­ers up to 225mm and tread up to 230mm. Stan­dard stair­way width- onem. The wider the stair­case, the more con­ve­nient it is to use it (to move towards each oth­er, move fur­ni­ture andt.d.). The width of sim­ple struc­tures can be 0.8m. To climb the flight of stairs was safe, the dis­tance between any step and the ceil­ing plane must be at least 2m. Fenc­ing is rec­om­mend­ed to per­form a height of 0.9m. Cen­ter dis­tance of adja­cent balus­ters does not exceed 150mm. If in the design of the fence the balus­ters are installed after two or three steps, then the space between them is usu­al­ly filled with rods (strings-strings) run­ning along the march.

When con­struct­ing turn­ing stairs on the rails, in order to save space, labor and finances, experts advise using not land­ings, but wind­ing tri­an­gu­lar steps (for turn­ing 90 at least three items are required).

Beauty and benefits

The suc­cess of the sup­port sys­tem on the bolts is pre­de­ter­mined by its orig­i­nal aes­thet­ics. Flights of stairs with­out the usu­al stringers and bow­strings seem to float in the air. Ele­gant and light, such designs do not bur­den or dark­en the room. Of course, in a pompous liv­ing room in the late Baroque style, they will hard­ly be appro­pri­ate. But this does not mean at all that the stairs on the rails- an attribute of exclu­sive­ly mod­ern spaces. They are able to per­ceive clas­sic and fan­ta­sy decor, join in the most unex­pect­ed styl­is­tic con­text.

In addi­tion to artis­tic mer­its, such stairs also have seri­ous prac­ti­cal advan­tages. First­ly, with equal over­all lift height and lev­el of con­ve­nience, they take up less space than march­ing ones. Sec­ond­ly, the com­po­si­tion on the bolts- a win-win option when arrang­ing a stair­case in a tow­er, bay win­dow or niche with curved walls. ATIn this case, there is no need to make “twist­ed” (and there­fore very expen­sive) strings or bow­strings. Stairs on the bolts are also good for hous­es with wood­en or weak­ened ceil­ings, since they do not cre­ate a sig­nif­i­cant load on the sup­port­ing struc­tures.

The sup­port sys­tems on the rails are char­ac­ter­ized by high man­u­fac­tura­bil­i­ty. They are easy to repair, since the dam­aged stage is changed with­out vio­lat­ing the integri­ty of neigh­bor­ing ele­ments. ToIn addi­tion, these struc­tures can be adjust­ed (for exam­ple, in the case of nat­ur­al set­tle­ment of the build­ing and the occur­rence of oth­er defor­ma­tions).

Final­ly, “air” stairs do not require tedious main­te­nance. Dust and dirt do not accu­mu­late on open steps. Dur­ing clean­ing, the brush or noz­zle of the vac­u­um clean­er does not encounter seri­ous obsta­cles or inac­ces­si­ble cor­ners.

Accord­ing to the design fea­tures, these stairs, in our opin­ion, can be divid­ed into three groups: can­tilever struc­tures, in which the bolts are locat­ed on one side of the steps and per­form a load-bear­ing func­tion; com­bined mod­els, where the load is redis­trib­uted between the bolts and the sup­port­ing handrail; and com­plex sys­tems- they con­tain both bolts, and one kosour or bow­string.

Sol­id under your feet

For the man­u­fac­ture of steps of bolt stairs, glued boards with a thick­ness of at least 60mm from fair­ly hard woods (larch, oak, ash, beech, cher­ry, maple andt.d.). Tothey also use mate­r­i­al veneered with valu­able wood veneer (var­i­ous types of mahogany, Amer­i­can wal­nut, olive andt.d.). Glued prod­ucts are char­ac­ter­ized by increased strength and geo­met­ric sta­bil­i­ty. Rel­a­tive­ly recent­ly, stairs began to be made from a new lam­i­nat­ed CPL mate­r­i­al (Ken­ngott), imi­tat­ing the tex­ture of wood and stone. Such steps are char­ac­ter­ized by excep­tion­al wear resis­tance, dura­bil­i­ty, immu­ni­ty to sig­nif­i­cant tem­per­a­ture and humid­i­ty changes.

In the man­u­fac­ture of stone steps, two or more slabs of mar­ble, gran­ite, gneiss, quartzite andt.e. In addi­tion, rein­forced con­crete treads with a thick­ness of 3–4cm, lined with dec­o­ra­tive stone.

To cre­ate “trans­par­ent” stairs, steps made of acrylic or lam­i­nat­ed high-strength glass with a thick­ness of 36–38 are used.mm. To pre­vent the treads from slip­ping, their upper plane is made cor­ru­gat­ed or cov­ered with a spe­cial “invis­i­ble” mate­r­i­al that rough­ens glass or plas­tic.

Discreet charm of the console

Bolt­sy (from Ger­man bolzen- “bolt”, “rod”) are sup­port nodes that ensure the rigid­i­ty and sta­bil­i­ty of the flight of stairs. Their design is sim­ple. If we place a sleeve (a piece of pipe) between two steps, drill through holes in the steps that pass along the axis of the pipe, insert a suf­fi­cient­ly long bolt into them and tight­en the steps and the pipe with this bolt and nut, then we will get the sim­plest struc­ture of the bolt. They are placed in pairs on each step. So that the flight of stairs does not sag from the weight of peo­ple, car­go and its own ele­ments, the diam­e­ters of the bolts and bush­ings should be larg­er, and so that the span looks more ele­gant- vice ver­sa. The struc­tur­al and aes­thet­ic solu­tion of the stair­case as a whole large­ly depends on the strength char­ac­ter­is­tics of these ele­ments. Bush­ings are made of wood, met­al (chrome or stain­less steel, pol­ished brass) and polyamide. The most pop­u­lar are met­al ones. All mod­ern parts of the sup­port units are of high qual­i­ty. In addi­tion, steel and plas­tic bush­ings are made tele­scop­ic (thread­ed) to adjust their height dur­ing instal­la­tion or oper­a­tion. Tread thick­ness- at least 60mm, which pro­vides the entire lad­der struc­ture with the nec­es­sary rigid­i­ty.

Dur­ing instal­la­tion, first, spe­cial bolts-sup­ports for the first, low­er step are attached to the floor slab (their tight­en­ing rod has an anchor part). They fix the first step. Two bolts are installed near its trail­ing edge, sup­port­ing the lead­ing edge of the sec­ond, andt.e. But on some bolts (“nor­mal” size, that is, with a tie bolt diam­e­ter of 10–12mm) the lad­der can grow only four or five steps. Of course, it is pos­si­ble to make a struc­ture with large diam­e­ter bolts that will work as an ele­ment of the stringer. How­ev­er, in this case, the design los­es its “airy” appeal. There­fore, in order to main­tain har­mo­ny, the stairs on the bolts need the sup­port of the walls. The steps are sup­port­ed on them by means of spe­cial brack­ets, which, in turn, are attached to the wall with steel anchors. The length of the pinched end depends on the type of wall mate­r­i­al. Let’s say a brick par­ti­tion should have a thick­ness of at least half a brick (130mm). ATit drills a hole with a diam­e­ter of 40mm, in which wedged an anchor with a length of 80mm. Com­pa­ny Ken­ngott prac­tices fas­ten­ing anchors into a sol­id wall with “fast” cement, set­ting with­in a few min­utes. ATin this case, the embed­ment length is 140–160mm.

Arms do not “expel” the Bolts from their zone of influ­ence. The two types of sup­port ele­ments coex­ist per­fect­ly. Brack­ets not only per­ceive the ver­ti­cal load, but also do not allow the march to sway from side to side. The instal­la­tion of bolts on the inside of the steps increas­es the oper­a­tional reli­a­bil­i­ty and sta­bil­i­ty of the stairs (the steps do not “play”), and also main­tains the aes­thet­ic bal­ance of the struc­ture. We add that elas­tic pads are placed on the brack­ets, which ensure a snug fit of the treads and damp­en their vibra­tion when walk­ing. Stairs com­pa­ny. Hitech (Rus­sia) offers the instal­la­tion of anchors in the wall through spe­cial sound insu­la­tors that damp­en vibra­tion, pre­vent­ing it from mov­ing to the walls and cre­at­ing noise.

Stan­dard march- this is 15 steps (lifts). If the stair­case is high­er, then an inter­me­di­ate rod sup­port is placed on the fourth or fifth tread. ATload-bear­ing racks also need turnta­bles. How­ev­er, often such a deci­sion does not suit the own­ers or the design­er. Then oth­er con­struc­tive meth­ods are used. For exam­ple, if the height of the stairs exceeds the norm by sev­er­al ris­es, then part of the treads and the plat­form can be hung on ties to the ceil­ing. In this case, the sus­pen­sions will become not only load-bear­ing ele­ments, but also a fence.

Note that the dimen­sions of the bolts depend not only on the length of the steps, but also on their mate­r­i­al. For exam­ple, treads longer than 1m need pow­er­ful strength ele­ments (diam­e­ter of steel spac­er- at least 25mm). The sit­u­a­tion is aggra­vat­ed if the instal­la­tion of a stone stair­case is planned, and even with a very heavy fence (forg­ing andt.P.). Then it will be nec­es­sary to look for a bal­ance between the rich dec­o­ra­tion and the rea­son­able weight of the com­po­si­tion. AToth­er­wise, there will be a need for mas­sive bolts, which will com­pli­cate the man­u­fac­ture and instal­la­tion of the prod­uct, increase the total esti­mat­ed cost, and most impor­tant­ly- to the loss of the mean­ing of the con­struc­tion of the Bolt­sev lad­der.

Despite the exter­nal weight­less­ness, the struc­tures on the rails are able to with­stand a dis­trib­uted load of up to 1800 kgf. Such stairs are equipped with a sol­id balustrade made of wood and met­al, glass rail­ings andt.e. In fair­ness, let’s say that pow­er­ful bolts account for a sig­nif­i­cant part of the total cost of the struc­ture.

The sec­ond group (accord­ing to the above clas­si­fi­ca­tion)- struc­tures in which part of the load is tak­en by the handrail, which acts as an inclined load-bear­ing beam. Through its sup­port­ing pil­lars, it trans­fers the load to the floors. ATIn this case, the cost of the bolts is reduced by reduc­ing their diam­e­ter. In this case, the steps can be made thin­ner by 5–10mm. But mod­els of this type have sig­nif­i­cant lim­i­ta­tions on the instal­la­tion of fences. For exam­ple, you can­not use glass (only poly­car­bon­ate) or a large mass balustrade. Oth­er­wise, the handrail may be severe­ly deformed.

Take care of the stairs

So that wood­en stairs do not creak, do not dry out and are not cov­ered with a web of small cracks, it is nec­es­sary to fol­low the sim­plest rules for their oper­a­tion.

The struc­ture must be installed at a suf­fi­cient­ly large dis­tance from the heat­ing devices (at least 1.5m), as well as from pipelines of water sup­ply and water heat­ing sys­tems. ATthe room must main­tain a favor­able tem­per­a­ture and humid­i­ty regime for wood­en prod­ucts (air tem­per­a­ture- 20–25 C, rel­a­tive humid­i­ty- 50–60%). It is impor­tant to avoid sud­den and sig­nif­i­cant tem­per­a­ture and humid­i­ty changes. Toin addi­tion, nat­ur­al ven­ti­la­tion of the stair­case should be pro­vid­ed (if it is locat­ed in an iso­lat­ed or fenced vol­ume). With a lack of fresh air and high humid­i­ty, there is a high prob­a­bil­i­ty of bio­log­i­cal dam­age to the tree (the appear­ance of mold, rot andt.d.).

It is use­ful to know the brand of var­nish applied by the man­u­fac­tur­er in case of mechan­i­cal dam­age to the stairs. It is advis­able to clean the wood­en stairs with a damp, well-wrung cloth. Pro­cess­ing steps is accept­able (no more than 1 time permonth) with an aque­ous solu­tion of a spe­cial deter­gent con­tain­ing wax.

Brilliant combination

Neigh­bor­hood with a main wall or a load-bear­ing par­ti­tion is not typ­i­cal for all stairs. Often, flights of stairs are installed next to plas­ter­board struc­tures, par­ti­tions made of thin plas­ter­board slabs, or placed in the mid­dle of the room. ATIn this case, it is impos­si­ble to use a typ­i­cal lad­der on the bolts. To cre­ate a visu­al effect of “airi­ness”, com­plex sys­tems are used. Usu­al­ly, from the inside of the march, the tread is sup­port­ed by a met­al stringer made accord­ing to the pro­file of the steps. The result­ing “cranked” inclined beam is includ­ed in the over­all styl­is­tic con­cept of the inte­ri­or, there­by cre­at­ing the illu­sion of light­ness of the struc­ture.

We add that in wood­en walls (beam, log) it is not rec­om­mend­ed to arrange can­tilever sup­ports on anchors. The steps from the inside of the march are cut into the bow­string with their ends- an inclined load-bear­ing beam made of indus­tri­al wood. At the same time, the tex­ture of the wood is select­ed in such a way that the ele­ment of the stairs fits organ­i­cal­ly into the nat­ur­al pat­tern of the wall.

In addi­tion, the bolts can play the role of addi­tion­al sup­port nodes. Let’s say the steps of the spi­ral stair­cas­es are pinched in the B‑pillar. For stairs with tread length 1m and more, bent wood­en bow­strings or met­al stringers are usu­al­ly used. Such a deci­sion requires a seri­ous invest­ment of time and finances (espe­cial­ly when mak­ing a bow­string) and some­times con­tra­dicts the inte­ri­or design solu­tion. Easy-to-install bolts pro­vide sta­bil­i­ty and strength to the spi­ral stair­case, while main­tain­ing the “trans­paren­cy” of the struc­ture.

Systems approach

From what has been said, it is clear that the lad­ders on the rails belong to the cat­e­go­ry of build­ing prod­ucts of indus­tri­al pro­duc­tion. The pos­si­bil­i­ty of cre­at­ing such struc­tures at home rais­es seri­ous doubts. Of course, the hypo­thet­i­cal Left-han­der, hav­ing set a goal, “forges” the steps with “author’s” bolts. But the qual­i­ty, reli­a­bil­i­ty, sta­bil­i­ty and dura­bil­i­ty will be unsat­is­fac­to­ry. Andthere are good rea­sons for that.

After all, bolts, despite their appar­ent sim­plic­i­ty, are a mini-fix­ing sys­tem. It can be made only in indus­tri­al con­di­tions. By the way, seri­ous man­u­fac­tur­ers use brand­ed parts that pre­vent spon­ta­neous unwind­ing of the bolts dur­ing oper­a­tion.

Pointe steps
Stone stairs on the rails (Ken­ngott) The high man­u­fac­tura­bil­i­ty of lad­ders on the bolts is achieved through com­pe­tent design and high pre­ci­sion pro­duc­tion. Usu­al­ly, the type of struc­ture suit­able for this par­tic­u­lar case is select­ed from the cat­a­log. The devel­op­ment of the stairs is car­ried out accord­ing to the results of care­ful mea­sure­ments, which are per­formed by an employ­ee of the man­u­fac­tur­er or installer (an offi­cial and cer­ti­fied deal­er of the man­u­fac­tur­er). After the parts are man­u­fac­tured at the fac­to­ry, the test assem­bly of the prod­uct is car­ried out in the work­shop. Then the lad­der is dis­man­tled and sent to the con­struc­tion site. Instal­la­tion is car­ried out with­in 1–2 days. And on the fixed steps you can walk almost imme­di­ate­ly. Andone more nuance. The actu­al dimen­sions of build­ing struc­tures at the instal­la­tion site often dif­fer marked­ly from those obtained at the time the stair­case was mea­sured. The most com­mon rea­son- non-com­pli­ance with the design thick­ness of the floor “pie”. When installing stairs on stringers, the dif­fer­ence is usu­al­ly com­pen­sat­ed by the height of the first or last step, which fur­ther neg­a­tive­ly affects the ease of move­ment. ATin the case of a bolt stair­case, this error is dis­trib­uted over the entire height of the struc­ture (by adjust­ing the height of the sleeve). Thus, the lift­ing step does not go astray, remain­ing uni­form along the entire inclined path.

Stairs on the rails are accom­pa­nied by a 1‑year war­ran­ty. Next, you can draw up a con­tract for post-war­ran­ty ser­vice. More­over, man­u­fac­tur­ers usu­al­ly keep doc­u­men­ta­tion of each mod­el for a very long time (for exam­ple, a com­pa­ny Ken­ngott- 30 years).

lift price

The cost of the stairs on the bolts depends on many fac­tors: the con­fig­u­ra­tion, the pres­ence of rod sup­ports or hang­ers, the mate­r­i­al of the bolts, steps, handrail, balustrade andt.e. The base price ranges from 55–75 thou­sand rubles. for 1 run­ning m march (exclud­ing winder steps and land­ings).

The edi­tors thank the com­pa­ny “Crys­tal SC”, “CM2 Square”, “JSCB Tech­nomir”, “Met­al — Design”,” Stairs. Hitech”, Ken­ngott Trep­penEasyRise for help in prepar­ing the mate­r­i­al.

  • Source: Ideas for Your Home Magazine#105

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