The installation of the stairs is somewhat reminiscent of the assembly of a children’s designer
Photo by K. Manko
The staircase on the bolts will add sophistication even to the modest interior of the hallway
Photo by K. Manko
The design easily and accurately fits even into the curved space
The spacer is usually made adjustable and made of steel or durable plastic.
Bolts are placed at a distance 40–60mm from the edge of the step (“Metal — Design”)
Photo by K. Manko
Even stone steps with bolts can seem light and graceful.
Light wood staircase with bolts creates a festive feeling
Support bolts for the first stage are attached to the bearing floor
An option for attaching the upper step to the floor slab using a riser (a) and constructing railings that perceive part of the total load acting on the flight of stairs (b)
Photo by K. Manko,
Relying on the bolts made it possible to create an exquisite spiral staircase that does not obscure the front hall.
Bracket with a special soundproof sleeve that dampens the vibration of steps (“Stairs. Hitech”)
The design of the support nodes:
a- connection to the wall;
b- Boltse connection;
one- plastic sleeve,
3- anchor bolt;
resilient pad, 5- steps; 6- screw;
8 — telescopic tube;
Photo by K. Manko
In the design of the stairs, the bolts work together with the kosour
“Metal — Design”
The massive construction of the cantilever staircase (a) is inferior in elegance to the staircase on the rails (b)
The original symbiosis of the bolt and spiral staircases
A solid handrail and a powerful bowstring emphasize the energetic dynamism of the bolt staircase.
Handrail “rope” suitable for design in a romantic style
Transparent acrylic steps are as durable as wooden ones
If architecture, as Goethe argued,- this is frozen music, then its elements can be compared with materialized melodies. True, many architectural forms, unlike music, lack the feeling of flight. BUTbecause modern technologies make it possible to create authentic ballet suites from metal, wood, glass and stone that amaze the imagination.
Photo by K. Manko Stairs- the most important elements of any home. They give dynamics to the architecture of the facades and bring originality to the interior design. Modern trends in construction- this is openness, visual lightness and swiftness of spatial volumes, including stairs. Flights of stairs should not block the flow of daylight, create gloomy zones, split the building into closed rooms-wells. However, one cannot but admit that monumental heaviness is characteristic of traditional marching structures. Spiral staircases have their own aesthetic advantages, but are not so convenient for movement. ATXXin. mid-flight and spiral staircases have worthy competitors- constructions on the bolts. For the first time, a new support system was used by the company Kenngott (Germany)- one of the world’s leading manufacturers of stairs of various types. ATIn our country, such structures appeared in the mid-90s. In a relatively short time, the innovation has gained a lot of admirers both in the circles of professional architects and designers, and among private developers and homeowners.
When designing ladders on rails, safety, functionality and ergonomics requirements must be observed. According to current regulations (SNiP 2.08.01- 89 * “Residential buildings”) the angle of ascent (descent) of the flight of stairs should not go beyond 30–40. With a steepness of more than 45 the movement on the stairs is complicated (especially the descent). Sloping structures (less than 25) take up too much space and are more likely to be classified as ramps. The dimensions of the steps are usually taken based on the slope of the march. ATIn Russia, the following parameters of tread (width) and riser (height) are most commonly used: 300150, 280160, 270180mm. However, custom made stairs can have risers up to 225mm and tread up to 230mm. Standard stairway width- onem. The wider the staircase, the more convenient it is to use it (to move towards each other, move furniture andt.d.). The width of simple structures can be 0.8m. To climb the flight of stairs was safe, the distance between any step and the ceiling plane must be at least 2m. Fencing is recommended to perform a height of 0.9m. Center distance of adjacent balusters does not exceed 150mm. If in the design of the fence the balusters are installed after two or three steps, then the space between them is usually filled with rods (strings-strings) running along the march.
When constructing turning stairs on the rails, in order to save space, labor and finances, experts advise using not landings, but winding triangular steps (for turning 90 at least three items are required).
Beauty and benefits
The success of the support system on the bolts is predetermined by its original aesthetics. Flights of stairs without the usual stringers and bowstrings seem to float in the air. Elegant and light, such designs do not burden or darken the room. Of course, in a pompous living room in the late Baroque style, they will hardly be appropriate. But this does not mean at all that the stairs on the rails- an attribute of exclusively modern spaces. They are able to perceive classic and fantasy decor, join in the most unexpected stylistic context.
In addition to artistic merits, such stairs also have serious practical advantages. Firstly, with equal overall lift height and level of convenience, they take up less space than marching ones. Secondly, the composition on the bolts- a win-win option when arranging a staircase in a tower, bay window or niche with curved walls. ATIn this case, there is no need to make “twisted” (and therefore very expensive) strings or bowstrings. Stairs on the bolts are also good for houses with wooden or weakened ceilings, since they do not create a significant load on the supporting structures.
The support systems on the rails are characterized by high manufacturability. They are easy to repair, since the damaged stage is changed without violating the integrity of neighboring elements. ToIn addition, these structures can be adjusted (for example, in the case of natural settlement of the building and the occurrence of other deformations).
Finally, “air” stairs do not require tedious maintenance. Dust and dirt do not accumulate on open steps. During cleaning, the brush or nozzle of the vacuum cleaner does not encounter serious obstacles or inaccessible corners.
According to the design features, these stairs, in our opinion, can be divided into three groups: cantilever structures, in which the bolts are located on one side of the steps and perform a load-bearing function; combined models, where the load is redistributed between the bolts and the supporting handrail; and complex systems- they contain both bolts, and one kosour or bowstring.
Solid under your feet
For the manufacture of steps of bolt stairs, glued boards with a thickness of at least 60mm from fairly hard woods (larch, oak, ash, beech, cherry, maple andt.d.). Tothey also use material veneered with valuable wood veneer (various types of mahogany, American walnut, olive andt.d.). Glued products are characterized by increased strength and geometric stability. Relatively recently, stairs began to be made from a new laminated CPL material (Kenngott), imitating the texture of wood and stone. Such steps are characterized by exceptional wear resistance, durability, immunity to significant temperature and humidity changes.
In the manufacture of stone steps, two or more slabs of marble, granite, gneiss, quartzite andt.e. In addition, reinforced concrete treads with a thickness of 3–4cm, lined with decorative stone.
To create “transparent” stairs, steps made of acrylic or laminated high-strength glass with a thickness of 36–38 are used.mm. To prevent the treads from slipping, their upper plane is made corrugated or covered with a special “invisible” material that roughens glass or plastic.
Discreet charm of the console
Boltsy (from German bolzen- “bolt”, “rod”) are support nodes that ensure the rigidity and stability of the flight of stairs. Their design is simple. If we place a sleeve (a piece of pipe) between two steps, drill through holes in the steps that pass along the axis of the pipe, insert a sufficiently long bolt into them and tighten the steps and the pipe with this bolt and nut, then we will get the simplest structure of the bolt. They are placed in pairs on each step. So that the flight of stairs does not sag from the weight of people, cargo and its own elements, the diameters of the bolts and bushings should be larger, and so that the span looks more elegant- vice versa. The structural and aesthetic solution of the staircase as a whole largely depends on the strength characteristics of these elements. Bushings are made of wood, metal (chrome or stainless steel, polished brass) and polyamide. The most popular are metal ones. All modern parts of the support units are of high quality. In addition, steel and plastic bushings are made telescopic (threaded) to adjust their height during installation or operation. Tread thickness- at least 60mm, which provides the entire ladder structure with the necessary rigidity.
During installation, first, special bolts-supports for the first, lower step are attached to the floor slab (their tightening rod has an anchor part). They fix the first step. Two bolts are installed near its trailing edge, supporting the leading edge of the second, andt.e. But on some bolts (“normal” size, that is, with a tie bolt diameter of 10–12mm) the ladder can grow only four or five steps. Of course, it is possible to make a structure with large diameter bolts that will work as an element of the stringer. However, in this case, the design loses its “airy” appeal. Therefore, in order to maintain harmony, the stairs on the bolts need the support of the walls. The steps are supported on them by means of special brackets, which, in turn, are attached to the wall with steel anchors. The length of the pinched end depends on the type of wall material. Let’s say a brick partition should have a thickness of at least half a brick (130mm). ATit drills a hole with a diameter of 40mm, in which wedged an anchor with a length of 80mm. Company Kenngott practices fastening anchors into a solid wall with “fast” cement, setting within a few minutes. ATin this case, the embedment length is 140–160mm.
Arms do not “expel” the Bolts from their zone of influence. The two types of support elements coexist perfectly. Brackets not only perceive the vertical load, but also do not allow the march to sway from side to side. The installation of bolts on the inside of the steps increases the operational reliability and stability of the stairs (the steps do not “play”), and also maintains the aesthetic balance of the structure. We add that elastic pads are placed on the brackets, which ensure a snug fit of the treads and dampen their vibration when walking. Stairs company. Hitech (Russia) offers the installation of anchors in the wall through special sound insulators that dampen vibration, preventing it from moving to the walls and creating noise.
Standard march- this is 15 steps (lifts). If the staircase is higher, then an intermediate rod support is placed on the fourth or fifth tread. ATload-bearing racks also need turntables. However, often such a decision does not suit the owners or the designer. Then other constructive methods are used. For example, if the height of the stairs exceeds the norm by several rises, then part of the treads and the platform can be hung on ties to the ceiling. In this case, the suspensions will become not only load-bearing elements, but also a fence.
Note that the dimensions of the bolts depend not only on the length of the steps, but also on their material. For example, treads longer than 1m need powerful strength elements (diameter of steel spacer- at least 25mm). The situation is aggravated if the installation of a stone staircase is planned, and even with a very heavy fence (forging andt.P.). Then it will be necessary to look for a balance between the rich decoration and the reasonable weight of the composition. ATotherwise, there will be a need for massive bolts, which will complicate the manufacture and installation of the product, increase the total estimated cost, and most importantly- to the loss of the meaning of the construction of the Boltsev ladder.
Despite the external weightlessness, the structures on the rails are able to withstand a distributed load of up to 1800 kgf. Such stairs are equipped with a solid balustrade made of wood and metal, glass railings andt.e. In fairness, let’s say that powerful bolts account for a significant part of the total cost of the structure.
The second group (according to the above classification)- structures in which part of the load is taken by the handrail, which acts as an inclined load-bearing beam. Through its supporting pillars, it transfers the load to the floors. ATIn this case, the cost of the bolts is reduced by reducing their diameter. In this case, the steps can be made thinner by 5–10mm. But models of this type have significant limitations on the installation of fences. For example, you cannot use glass (only polycarbonate) or a large mass balustrade. Otherwise, the handrail may be severely deformed.
Take care of the stairs
So that wooden stairs do not creak, do not dry out and are not covered with a web of small cracks, it is necessary to follow the simplest rules for their operation.
The structure must be installed at a sufficiently large distance from the heating devices (at least 1.5m), as well as from pipelines of water supply and water heating systems. ATthe room must maintain a favorable temperature and humidity regime for wooden products (air temperature- 20–25 C, relative humidity- 50–60%). It is important to avoid sudden and significant temperature and humidity changes. Toin addition, natural ventilation of the staircase should be provided (if it is located in an isolated or fenced volume). With a lack of fresh air and high humidity, there is a high probability of biological damage to the tree (the appearance of mold, rot andt.d.).
It is useful to know the brand of varnish applied by the manufacturer in case of mechanical damage to the stairs. It is advisable to clean the wooden stairs with a damp, well-wrung cloth. Processing steps is acceptable (no more than 1 time permonth) with an aqueous solution of a special detergent containing wax.
Neighborhood with a main wall or a load-bearing partition is not typical for all stairs. Often, flights of stairs are installed next to plasterboard structures, partitions made of thin plasterboard slabs, or placed in the middle of the room. ATIn this case, it is impossible to use a typical ladder on the bolts. To create a visual effect of “airiness”, complex systems are used. Usually, from the inside of the march, the tread is supported by a metal stringer made according to the profile of the steps. The resulting “cranked” inclined beam is included in the overall stylistic concept of the interior, thereby creating the illusion of lightness of the structure.
We add that in wooden walls (beam, log) it is not recommended to arrange cantilever supports on anchors. The steps from the inside of the march are cut into the bowstring with their ends- an inclined load-bearing beam made of industrial wood. At the same time, the texture of the wood is selected in such a way that the element of the stairs fits organically into the natural pattern of the wall.
In addition, the bolts can play the role of additional support nodes. Let’s say the steps of the spiral staircases are pinched in the B‑pillar. For stairs with tread length 1m and more, bent wooden bowstrings or metal stringers are usually used. Such a decision requires a serious investment of time and finances (especially when making a bowstring) and sometimes contradicts the interior design solution. Easy-to-install bolts provide stability and strength to the spiral staircase, while maintaining the “transparency” of the structure.
From what has been said, it is clear that the ladders on the rails belong to the category of building products of industrial production. The possibility of creating such structures at home raises serious doubts. Of course, the hypothetical Left-hander, having set a goal, “forges” the steps with “author’s” bolts. But the quality, reliability, stability and durability will be unsatisfactory. Andthere are good reasons for that.
After all, bolts, despite their apparent simplicity, are a mini-fixing system. It can be made only in industrial conditions. By the way, serious manufacturers use branded parts that prevent spontaneous unwinding of the bolts during operation.
Stone stairs on the rails (Kenngott) The high manufacturability of ladders on the bolts is achieved through competent design and high precision production. Usually, the type of structure suitable for this particular case is selected from the catalog. The development of the stairs is carried out according to the results of careful measurements, which are performed by an employee of the manufacturer or installer (an official and certified dealer of the manufacturer). After the parts are manufactured at the factory, the test assembly of the product is carried out in the workshop. Then the ladder is dismantled and sent to the construction site. Installation is carried out within 1–2 days. And on the fixed steps you can walk almost immediately. Andone more nuance. The actual dimensions of building structures at the installation site often differ markedly from those obtained at the time the staircase was measured. The most common reason- non-compliance with the design thickness of the floor “pie”. When installing stairs on stringers, the difference is usually compensated by the height of the first or last step, which further negatively affects the ease of movement. ATin the case of a bolt staircase, this error is distributed over the entire height of the structure (by adjusting the height of the sleeve). Thus, the lifting step does not go astray, remaining uniform along the entire inclined path.
Stairs on the rails are accompanied by a 1‑year warranty. Next, you can draw up a contract for post-warranty service. Moreover, manufacturers usually keep documentation of each model for a very long time (for example, a company Kenngott- 30 years).
The cost of the stairs on the bolts depends on many factors: the configuration, the presence of rod supports or hangers, the material of the bolts, steps, handrail, balustrade andt.e. The base price ranges from 55–75 thousand rubles. for 1 running m march (excluding winder steps and landings).
The editors thank the company “Crystal SC”, “CM2 Square”, “JSCB Technomir”, “Metal — Design”,” Stairs. Hitech”, Kenngott TreppenEasyRise for help in preparing the material.