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Vertical travel TAIL
March­ing stairs of curvi­lin­ear form. The door, accord­ing to the norms, goes to the land­ing
Vertical travel CAST
This is what the top floor stair­well looks like. It will save you from falling into the mine
Vertical travelRINTAL
Stairs, fur­ni­ture and the entire con­struc­tivist inte­ri­or- intra­di­tions of noble sim­plic­i­ty
Vertical travel TAIL
Winder steps help save space
Vertical travel CAST
Stair­case Mini Elec­tra: met­al stringer lined with wood
Vertical travel CAST
Spi­ral stair­cas­es are very beau­ti­ful, but not very con­ve­nient for move­ment.
Vertical travel “STAIRS SOVEKS”
It is easy to solve the prob­lems of shrink­age of the build­ing and the stair struc­ture itself if the height of the sup­port col­umn is adjustable
Vertical travel RINTAL
Gara is a clas­sic march­ing stair­case. The steps are made of beech, and the rail­ing- forged met­al
Vertical travel RINTAL
Sur­pris­ing­ly light and ele­gant prod­uct. This is the Araya stair­case from RINTAL (France)
Vertical travel ALFA SCALE
Vertical travel CAST
Small mobile lamps- fire­flies on the fence
Vertical travel ALFA SCALE
wood and met­al- the most pop­u­lar mate­ri­als in the pro­duc­tion of stairs. “Air” design from ALFA SCALE
Vertical travel “SQUIREL”
In areas with high traf­fic, it is rec­om­mend­ed to use durable mate­ri­als, such as porce­lain stoneware.
Vertical travel CAST
mas­sive stair­case- Ses­tans- a con­ve­nient option for large tech­no-style rooms
Vertical travel “SQUIREL”
A non-stan­dard ver­sion of a porce­lain stoneware stair­case: the steps are fixed on a met­al stringer. IMOLA CERAMICHE
Vertical travel ALFA SCALE
Dec­o­ra­tive design of the stairs- one of the main con­cerns of a spe­cial­ist

In ancient times, high-rise build­ings, one of the archi­tec­tur­al ele­ments of which was a stair­case, were con­sid­ered the priv­i­lege of “God’s cho­sen ones”- kings, pharaohs or priests. Today, stairs lead us not only to the sky, but also to ordi­nary “earth­ly” cham­bers.- bed­rooms, liv­ing rooms, bil­liard rooms or win­ter gar­dens. ATthis arti­cle will focus on those struc­tures that “set­tled” inside coun­try hous­es and two-sto­ry apart­ments.

The stair­case design is, first of all, func­tion­al: it serves as a link between dif­fer­ent rooms, move­ment along it should be car­ried out quick­ly and as con­ve­nient­ly as pos­si­ble. In addi­tion, the stair­case is dec­o­ra­tive and par­tic­i­pates in shap­ing the style of the inte­ri­or. When prepar­ing to become a car­ing own­er of a two-sto­ry apart­ment or a coun­try house, you will def­i­nite­ly “stum­ble” on stair issues. When to design a stair­case? What designs and mate­ri­als to give pref­er­ence? Which firms have set­tled in the Russ­ian mar­ket and what do they offer? Final­ly, how to oper­ate the lad­der so that it lasts as long as pos­si­ble? Our arti­cle will tell about this and some oth­er intri­ca­cies of the stair­case busi­ness.

Design

Future own­ers of a coun­try house or a two-sto­ry apart­ment soon­er or lat­er ask them­selves: when to design a stair­case? And, unfor­tu­nate­ly, very often they are con­tent with a schemat­ic sketch in gen­er­al terms, leav­ing the detailed devel­op­ment of the stair­case struc­ture to the final stage of con­struc­tion. This approach is inef­fi­cient, because it leads to many “con­struc­tion” errors. Mis­take one: improp­er­ly planned space. The house is almost ready, but that’s the trou­ble- no design that you like can fit into the exist­ing dimen­sions of the open­ing. You scold the spe­cial­ist, and he stub­born­ly claims that it is impos­si­ble to choose a com­pe­tent ratio of the width of the tread and the height of the ris­er to your dimen­sions. This is indeed one of the most impor­tant quan­ti­ties in the stair busi­ness.- it depends on it how con­ve­nient it will be to move around the floors of the dwelling.

Error two: plan­ning the design of the stairs with­out tak­ing into account the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the mate­r­i­al of the walls to which the fas­ten­ing is car­ried out. Stairs can only be fixed to strong, usu­al­ly load-bear­ing walls (made ofcon­crete, thick tim­ber, bricks with a thick­ness of more than 25 cm) and in any case- toplas­ter­board, asbestos-cement walls half a brick thick- that is, “dec­o­ra­tive” par­ti­tions.

Mis­take three: plac­ing heaters direct­ly under the stairs. This is espe­cial­ly dan­ger­ous for wood­en struc­tures. There is a prac­ti­cal way to deter­mine the opti­mal dis­tance between the wood and the heaters: check the sur­faces near the appli­ance to the touch and make sure that they do not heat up. Con­sid­er in advance the loca­tion of elec­tri­cal wiring, pipelines, heat­ing and win­dows in rela­tion to the stair­case. If you val­ue space, try to use the nook under the stairs wise­ly.- build a wardrobe or book­cas­es here.

In a rainy cli­mate (for exam­ple, in Cen­tral Rus­sia with its char­ac­ter­is­tic long autumn), avoid plac­ing stairs in the north­ern and north­east­ern cor­ners of the house, since the walls are wet­ter here. Andcon­crete and brick, albeit in small quan­ti­ties, still absorb mois­ture, there­by con­tribut­ing to the cre­ation of a sep­a­rate micro­cli­mate zone, even with­in the same dwelling. If the archi­tec­tur­al plan does not allow avoid­ing the north cor­ner, try to “tear” the stair­case from the wall or pro­vide a con­stant flow of dry air between the stairs and the wall (for exam­ple, install a heat con­vec­tor). Keep in mind that not every archi­tect is a stair design­er.- it is quite pos­si­ble that you will have to invite anoth­er mas­ter.

When build­ing a wood­en house, you must also remem­ber about the shrink­age of the build­ing, which lasts for sev­er­al months and even years, as well as pos­si­ble soil move­ments.- for exam­ple, clay and loam. The sup­port­ing pil­lars in the stair struc­ture must have a com­pen­sat­ing struc­ture of the “tele­scope” type, if nec­es­sary, the height of such a lad­der is adjustable. This is only one of the options, while experts in each case will offer you the most cor­rect solu­tion. It is not rec­om­mend­ed to build stairs in a com­plete­ly “fresh” house- Withfrom the moment of instal­la­tion of the log house, at least a year must pass.

Manufacturers

The pro­duc­tion of a stair­case takes quite a long time: from the begin­ning of design to the deliv­ery of fin­ished parts, it takes from one to threemonths. ATwhich com­pa­ny to con­tact- a ques­tion to be solved joint­ly with the archi­tect. A fair­ly large num­ber of man­u­fac­tur­ers, both domes­tic and for­eign, are rep­re­sent­ed on the Russ­ian mar­ket.

Of the for­eign, the most pop­u­lar are the Ital­ian firms ALBINIFONTANOT, ALFA SCALA, MARRETTICAST, INTERSCALA, LINEA SCALE, NELUR, RINTAL, TAIL, Ger­man KENNGOTT TREPPEN, French LAPEYRE recent­ly appeared. All of them pro­duce stairs of var­i­ous designs (mid-flight, spi­ral) and make them from a wide vari­ety of mate­ri­als.- wood, met­al, glass, stone. Lad­ders of for­eign firms are ordered through deal­ers who pro­vide design ser­vices, selec­tion of a spe­cif­ic mod­el from cat­a­logs, order­ing, deliv­ery of fin­ished ele­ments to Rus­sia and, final­ly, instal­la­tion. Thus, they are a kind of “co-pro­duc­ers” (“INTERIOR ACADEMY”, EUROSTROYSERVIS‑K”, “SAVEKS STAIRS”, etc.). When choos­ing a “ready-made” mod­el from the cat­a­log, you choose, first of all, the type, con­struc­tion and design. Dimen­sions are deter­mined dur­ing design. All this infor­ma­tion goes to the man­u­fac­tur­er, and he makes a stair­case based on the mod­el you have cho­sen and the dimen­sions you have deter­mined. There­fore, in a sense, each stair­case is unique.

Of the Russ­ian com­pa­nies, the largest man­u­fac­tur­ers are “DOP№1″, “CAREX STYLE”, “MAPLE LADDER”, “LADDER”, “SMKVADRAT”, pilot plant MNPO “TEMP”. There is also a fair­ly large num­ber of com­pa­nies spe­cial­iz­ing in the sup­ply of stairs or their parts from one spe­cif­ic mate­r­i­al (for exam­ple, “CAUCASIAN FOREST” sup­plies wood­en com­po­nents, “WHITE STONE”- steps made of mar­ble and gran­ite, and the BAG com­pa­ny pro­duces steps and rail­ings from lam­i­nat­ed glass and stain­less steel).

Design

There are sev­er­al clas­si­fi­ca­tions of lad­der struc­tures. ATIn this arti­cle, we will stick to the sim­plest of them, accord­ing to which the stairs can be divid­ed into mid-flight and spi­ral.

A flight stair­case con­sists of one or more spans inter­con­nect­ed by inter­me­di­ate plat­forms. The num­ber of steps in one span ranges from 3 to 18pieces (accord­ing to the norms of SNiP 2.08.01–89* “res­i­den­tial build­ings”). A march­ing stair­case can be either straight (the sim­plest design- a straight stair­case, con­sist­ing of one span), and a rotary one. The­o­ret­i­cal­ly, march­es can be locat­ed at any angle rel­a­tive to each oth­er and even be curvi­lin­ear, but in prac­tice, struc­tures with a rota­tion of 90 and 180 are most often encoun­tered.. The lat­ter, with the same step height, take up less space, although they are less con­ve­nient for mov­ing fur­ni­ture. Anoth­er kind of con­struc­tion- swing: the first one or two march­es lead to the site, from which two oth­er march­es diverge in oppo­site direc­tions. This is the most grand stair­case, it is often dec­o­rat­ed with sculp­tures, and it can even serve as the main ele­ment of the inte­ri­or. Move­ment on swing stairs- the whole cer­e­mo­ny.

The design of the spi­ral stair­case includes a ver­ti­cal sup­port rod and winder steps arranged around it in a spi­ral. ATIn most cas­es, the sup­port­ing col­umn has a com­plex com­pos­ite struc­ture: an inner rod and “glass­es” mount­ed on it, between which steps are clamped with the help of spe­cial bush­ings and rings. Some Russ­ian firms offer designs in which the steps are attached to the sup­port post using brack­ets. Such stairs are incon­ve­nient to use: they rat­tle when walk­ing, the steps and the sup­port­ing col­umn are deformed.

Min­i­mum diam­e­ter of a spi­ral stair­case- 110cm, and the most con­ve­nient- 150see and more. The angle of ele­va­tion can reach 55–60. Spi­ral stair­cas­es are not par­tic­u­lar­ly con­ve­nient for mov­ing peo­ple, for trans­port­ing fur­ni­ture (it hap­pened that the own­ers had to deliv­er fur­ni­ture to the sec­ond floor through the win­dows or dis­as­sem­ble the entire struc­ture of the stairs and trans­port the fur­ni­ture through the open­ing). Screw struc­tures some­times do not have a main sup­port col­umn- some experts dis­tin­guish them in a sep­a­rate group of cir­cu­lar stairs.

The fash­ion for stairs is amaz­ing­ly diverse. Accord­ing to the experts of all firms prac­tic­ing in this field, the most pop­u­lar designs- march­ing wood­en and march­ing, com­bin­ing wood and met­al. March­ing stairs are real­ly much more con­ve­nient than spi­ral ones. Mov­ing along the lat­ter is espe­cial­ly dif­fi­cult for small chil­dren, the elder­ly, and the dis­abled. Spi­ral stair­cas­es are usu­al­ly installed as sec­ondary (for exam­ple, as a sep­a­rate lift to the bed­room, study or dress­ing room) or in case of large space prob­lems.

Anatomy of a ladder

Any stair­case con­sists of a base (kosour, bow­string, bolts or sup­port post) and steps (open or with a ris­er). Addi­tion­al ele­ments are plat­forms between march­es, rail­ings and dec­o­ra­tive ele­ments.- balus­ters, sculp­ture, as well as built-in light­ing. The cus­tomer usu­al­ly choos­es a stair­case based on its appear­ance and com­pli­ance with the over­all archi­tec­tur­al style of the inte­ri­or, and does not go into tech­ni­cal details, rely­ing on pro­fes­sion­als. While leaf­ing through cat­a­logs, you may well come across more tech­ni­cal terms and pro­fes­sion­al infor­ma­tion.
Kosour- this is an inclined load-bear­ing beam on which the steps of the flight of stairs rest. ATDepend­ing on the design, the stair­case may have one or two stringers.
bow­string- also an inclined load-bear­ing struc­ture of the stairs, but the steps “cut” into the inner sides of the bow­string.
Bolz- a steel ele­ment con­nect­ing the steps to each oth­er. The lad­der on the bolts is prob­a­bly the “light­est” of all in its appear­ance. Its steps are attached to the wall with one end.
sup­port pipe- the cen­tral pil­lar, around which a spi­ral stair­case twists.
tread- the hor­i­zon­tal part of the step.
ris­er- the ver­ti­cal part of the step, clos­ing the gap between adja­cent treads and giv­ing the stairs addi­tion­al rigid­i­ty. ATsome designs are miss­ing.
winder steps- those in which the nor­mal width is observed only in the mid­dle line of the march. Their inner edge is nar­row­er, and the out­er one is wider.
Balustrade- fenc­ing of the land­ing or bal­cony above the stairs. As a rule, it has a round shape.
Balus­ters- dec­o­ra­tive details of the fence, car­ry the rail­ing.

Material, installation, care

The basis of the stair­case struc­ture can be con­crete, rein­forced con­crete, met­al or wood. ATdepend­ing on this, the stair­case will be called con­crete, met­al or wood­en (with the excep­tion of stone and glass struc­tures- they got their name from the mate­r­i­al of the steps). Com­bined designs are also com­mon.- “met­al-wood”, “met­al-glass”, porce­lain stoneware with rein­forced con­crete kosour, etc. Of all the mate­ri­als, wood is con­sid­ered the warmest, most pleas­ant and afford­able mate­r­i­al. Stairs made of glass or bare met­al- still very rare and exot­ic.

Depend­ing on the design of the build­ing, rein­forced con­crete floor slabs can with­stand the load 500‑1000 kg/m2. This is usu­al­ly enough to install a heavy stair­case made of stone or glass (weigh­ing up to 500 kg). Most of the wood­en and met­al struc­tures have a mass of 150 to 350kg. ATwood­en house (here the floors must with­stand a load of at least 250kg/m2) at the loca­tion of the stairs, the floors are rein­forced with addi­tion­al beams. Even at the plan­ning stage, one should take into account the state of the ceil­ing at the points of attach­ment of the stairs: the builders may have to cre­ate an addi­tion­al sup­port struc­ture that will dis­trib­ute the load over a large area. The choice of ref­er­ence points for a lad­der struc­ture depends on the con­fig­u­ra­tion of a par­tic­u­lar mod­el. So, a direct march­ing struc­ture is usu­al­ly attached to the ceil­ing and rests on the floor. A flight lad­der with one turn will require addi­tion­al fas­ten­ing to the wall, with two turns- fas­ten­ing to the floor, to the ceil­ing, to the wall and sup­port on a ver­ti­cal pole. ATin com­plex struc­tures with a large num­ber of turns, through fas­ten­ing of stringers, bow­strings or steps to the wall is also used. Met­al stringers are attached to embed­ded ele­ments with anchor bolts, while wood­en- Withusing bolt screws. On the out­er sur­face, the loca­tions of anchors and bolts are masked with dec­o­ra­tive plugs.

The great­est load is cre­at­ed by spi­ral stair­cas­es: the area of ​​​​their con­tact with the floor and ceil­ing is small. In order to avoid over­load prob­lems in wood­en hous­es, experts try to place the sup­port pil­lar of the spi­ral stair­case above the beam or in close prox­im­i­ty to it.

Depend­ing on the cho­sen design, instal­la­tion will be car­ried out at dif­fer­ent stages of con­struc­tion. Thus, a rein­forced con­crete kosour is cast at the stage of the main con­struc­tion work. Met­al and wood­en stringers and embed­ded ele­ments of stairs are installed at the final stage of con­struc­tion, before the start of fin­ish­ing work. The remain­ing ele­ments (steps, balus­ters, etc.)e.) install only after the paint has com­plete­ly dried. True, some firms pre­fer to install the stairs after fin­ish­ing work. The advan­tage of such a solu­tion- pro­tec­tion of the stairs from the effects of resid­ual mois­ture and one hun­dred per­cent pro­tec­tion of an expen­sive struc­ture from acci­den­tal ingress of paint or enam­el. The dif­fi­cul­ty lies in the fact that the embed­ded ele­ments will need to be fas­tened with high accu­ra­cy so as not to dam­age the fin­ish of walls, ceil­ings and floors.

Each of the mate­ri­als used in pro­duc­tion is capri­cious in its own way and requires indi­vid­ual care.

Wood- the most com­mon mate­r­i­al for cre­at­ing stairs of any design. More­over, a wide vari­ety of breeds are used.- both soft (pine, spruce, cedar, fir) and semi-hard (birch, maple) and hard (oak, beech, ash). Espe­cial­ly pop­u­lar today are pine (as the most afford­able mate­r­i­al), beech and oak. Cher­ry, wal­nut, cypress, iroko, teak, mogano and oth­er types of mahogany are con­sid­ered exot­ic for stair­cas­es. Regard­less of the cho­sen type of wood, all ele­ments (steps, bow­string, handrails, ris­ers) must be glued, since mono­lith­ic wood cracks and deforms very quick­ly. Per­mis­si­ble mois­ture con­tent of dried wood for stair struc­tures is 8–12% - inin domes­tic con­di­tions, a spe­cial mois­ture meter will help to mea­sure it. It is rec­om­mend­ed to buy all com­po­nents in one place, where they are select­ed accord­ing to their dec­o­ra­tive prop­er­ties (tone, pat­tern) and have under­gone the same pro­cess­ing. ATload-bear­ing struc­tures, it is not rec­om­mend­ed to com­bine breeds with dif­fer­ent coef­fi­cients of ther­mal expan­sion of the fiber- after a while, the lad­der will “swell up” or “float”.

Wood­en stairs are treat­ed with stain and var­nish. It can be either a col­or­less var­nish or var­i­ous col­ored tint­ing var­nish­es, enam­els and paints. The paint­ing pro­ce­dure is car­ried out before the assem­bly of the struc­ture. Whether or not to keep the nat­ur­al col­or of the wood depends on your taste. Many peo­ple pre­fer to tint wood to match the col­or of doors, par­quet or even win­dow frames. Lovers of uni­for­mi­ty should remem­ber that the var­nish is erased. Restor­ing the orig­i­nal appear­ance of col­ored var­nish will not be easy.- when applied again, it dis­solves the pre­vi­ous lay­ers, and you will not achieve a uni­form col­or with­out the inter­ven­tion of restor­ers. If the tree was orig­i­nal­ly cov­ered with a col­or­less var­nish, the prob­lem of re-coat­ing is solved by the own­er him­self at home.

Even glued wood is prone to crack­ing, espe­cial­ly due to tem­per­a­ture changes. There­fore, man­u­fac­tur­ing com­pa­nies guar­an­tee the nor­mal ser­vice of a wood­en stair­case only under cer­tain con­di­tions of its oper­a­tion. ATroom tem­per­a­ture must be main­tained 20–22FROM and rel­a­tive humid­i­ty 60–70%. ATIn very dry weath­er it is rec­om­mend­ed to use humid­i­fiers. ATas humid­i­fiers, you can use not only spe­cial­ized devices, but also var­i­ous shade-lov­ing plants (for exam­ple, “weep­ing” vines), as well as foun­tains installed direct­ly under the stairs. Stairs must be pro­tect­ed from direct sun­light, be at a suf­fi­cient dis­tance from heat­ing appli­ances. It is also nec­es­sary to exclude the pos­si­bil­i­ty of water get­ting on parts of the struc­ture in the event of a fail­ure of the water sup­ply sys­tem. These require­ments, unfor­tu­nate­ly, are not met in almost 80% of cas­es of oper­a­tion of wood­en stairs. First of all, we are talk­ing about the so-called “low-bud­get” stairs locat­ed in coun­try hous­es that are not heat­ed in win­ter. But the result is appro­pri­ate: the stair­case creaks, cracks, gaps appear in it.

The sec­ond minus of a wood­en stair­case- its high fire haz­ard. There­fore, in hous­es with a height of more than two floors, the only stair­case in the house must nec­es­sar­i­ly have a met­al stringer and met­al step sub­strates coat­ed with fire-resis­tant paint (for exam­ple, UNITERM).

Wood­en stairs, like wood­en hous­es, have a shrink­age peri­od of sev­er­al months.- You may need to adjust the fix­ing screws after­wards. Com­po­nents for wood­en stairs are sup­plied by the Russ­ian com­pa­nies ARBOL, CAUCASIAN FOREST, CANADIAN KEDR, PRAKTIKA.

A nat­ur­al stone. When work­ing with it, a good sense of pro­por­tion is sim­ply nec­es­sary, because a bulky stone stair­case threat­ens to turn your home into a rail­way sta­tion or scenery for a film about new Rus­sians. It is not nec­es­sary to build the entire struc­ture from stone- it is enough to con­fine one­self to steps and sep­a­rate dec­o­ra­tive ele­ments. The frame of the struc­ture is most often made of met­al, con­crete or rein­forced con­crete, the rail­ings are usu­al­ly met­al.

It is rec­om­mend­ed to use rock quar­ried by drilling rather than blast­ing (inter­nal cracks caused by the explo­sion are like­ly to show up dur­ing use). Of all the rocks, gran­ite and mar­ble are the most wide­ly used, the lat­ter being notice­ably more capri­cious. Mar­ble is eas­i­ly scratched, absorbs var­i­ous acids (a spilled cup of cof­fee or tea will entail very unpleas­ant con­se­quences). For lay­ing mar­ble, do not use ordi­nary cement mor­tar or ceram­ic tile adhe­sive.- after a while, irre­mov­able spots will appear on the sur­face of the stone. The Russ­ian mar­ket offers spe­cial adhe­sives and plas­ters from AKEMI (Ger­many), BELLINZONI (Italy), LITHOFIN (Ger­many). The same com­pa­nies also pro­duce var­i­ous mas­tics for stone care.both mar­ble and gran­ite.

When arrang­ing stairs, it is bet­ter to give pref­er­ence to pol­ished sur­faces, since it is very easy to slip on a pol­ished stone. For addi­tion­al pro­tec­tion against falls, the cen­tral part of the steps is cov­ered with spe­cial anti-slip mats (for exam­ple, from SURE STEP). They can be made from var­i­ous mate­ri­als: sisal, nat­ur­al wool, polypropy­lene, polyamide or rub­ber. On the one hand, such mats are usu­al­ly self-adhe­sive, due to which they are fixed on the steps and, if nec­es­sary, are eas­i­ly replaced. The sec­ond option, which allows you to secure the stone stair­case and at the same time not dis­guise all the beau­ty of the nat­ur­al mate­r­i­al,- anti-slip strips that are cut or sprayed along the out­er edge of the step. To the touch, this edge becomes a lit­tle rough.

On the Russ­ian mar­ket, stone steps as an inde­pen­dent prod­uct (slabs of var­i­ous thick­ness­es) are offered by man­u­fac­tur­ers such as “ALPARISTK”, “WHITE STONE”, “GRANULES”, asso­ci­a­tion “SARDIS”. But many firms spe­cial­iz­ing in stairs sup­ply stone steps as a set.

Ceram­ics. One of the pos­si­ble solu­tions for those who want to design floors and stairs in the same style- their fac­ing with ceram­ic plates or porce­lain stoneware. ATunlike nat­ur­al stone, these are more durable mate­ri­als that are resis­tant to chem­i­cal attack and abra­sion.

Most floor tile man­u­fac­tur­ers- both Russ­ian and for­eign- offer prod­ucts in size 3030, 2020 and 15thir­tysee Such ele­ments are con­ve­nient, includ­ing for the design of stairs. It is bet­ter to choose anti-slip tiles. Fans of a heat-insu­lat­ed floor have an oppor­tu­ni­ty to sup­ply a “ceram­ic” lad­der with heat­ing.

The con­ve­nience of the stairs is deter­mined by a com­bi­na­tion of sev­er­al fac­tors: the angle of ascent / descent; pas­sage width; the pres­ence of turn­ing sec­tions, inter­me­di­ate plat­forms; the pres­ence of free space above the head of a ris­ing per­son; safe stair rail­ing; good light­ing.

It is obvi­ous that gen­tle stairs are more con­ve­nient than steep ones, the best slope option for mid-flight stairs is 30–40. If the design is intend­ed for the move­ment of the elder­ly or the dis­abled, it is rec­om­mend­ed to make it more gen­tle. The steep­ness of the rise is relat­ed to the ratio of two quan­ti­ties- step height (ris­er) and step width (tread). Back in the XVIIIcen­tu­ry, the French archi­tect Jean-Fran­cois Blondel cal­cu­lat­ed the for­mu­la for the “archi­tec­tur­al step”: G + 2H = 59 64 cm where G- step width, H- lift­ing height, and 5964cm- the aver­age step of a per­son. But com­pared with those dis­tant times, today not only the aver­age height of a per­son has increased, but also the size of his legs (for exam­ple, in the XVIIIcen­tu­ry, the aver­age foot size of an adult male was 37–38). There­fore, now the most con­ve­nient stairs with a ris­er height 14–17cm and tread width 34–37 cm. ATa house where there are small chil­dren, it is rec­om­mend­ed to choose designs with ris­ers- it’s more secure.

The most com­pact is the lad­der design with a vari­able (“goose”) step. Its steps have a non-stan­dard shape.- on them “ful­ly” the foot of only one leg can fit.

For con­ve­nient pas­sage of one per­son up the stairs, its width should be 70–80 cm, for two- 120–150cm. The dis­tance between any step of the march and the ceil­ing must be at least two meters. This dis­tance is increased if the height of the own­ers is more than 180see Stan­dard rail­ings and balus­ters are height 90–100 cm. For con­ve­nient move­ment on the stairs of the elder­ly, the design is com­ple­ment­ed by a wall-mount­ed handrail with a height of 80–85 cm. The dis­tance between the balus­ters is from 12 to 25cm.

For the last three years, there have been new prod­ucts on the Russ­ian mar­ket- mono­lith­ic steps from porce­lain stoneware. They are offered by the Ital­ian fac­to­ries IMOLA CERAMICA, PANARIA, MIRAGE CERAMICA and the Russ­ian com­pa­ny “WHITE STONE”. Mono­lith­ic steps are aes­thet­ic (the seams do not spoil their appear­ance) and, more­over, they are not clogged with sand and dirt. They can be fixed with­out first lev­el­ing the con­crete base. For lay­ing, it is rec­om­mend­ed to use a spe­cial adhe­sive for porce­lain stoneware (for exam­ple, Atlas Plus from the Pol­ish com­pa­ny ATLAS or Ker­aflex from the Ital­ian com­pa­ny MAPEI, the lat­ter is more expen­sive). The cost of one Altair porce­lain stoneware slab (man­u­fac­tur­er- IMOLA CERAMICA)- from $34. Andthis is the low­est price for mono­lith­ic slabs, achieved through the in-line pro­duc­tion of steps with a size of 330125022mm and their sub­se­quent trim­ming to the indi­vid­ual dimen­sions of the stairs. The cost of steps of oth­er firms 2–3 times expen­sive. Plates will need exact­ly as many steps as your stair­case has. Man­u­fac­tur­ers also offer aux­il­iary ele­ments- ris­ers, skirt­ing boards, cor­ner steps, cor­nices. Ceram­ic steps are slip­pery, like stone ones,- rec­om­men­da­tions for cre­at­ing safe oper­at­ing con­di­tions are the same.

Met­al- the most durable mate­r­i­al for stairs. The steps that are sub­ject­ed to the most severe oper­a­tion are made of steel (pro­filed steel) and cast iron (shaped cast­ing). Met­al rail­ings are often used as an ele­ment of stairs made of wood, stone, ceram­ic or glass. Basic fenc­ing options- this is forg­ing from black met­al, a bent pol­ished pro­file or a pipe made of stain­less steel or brass. Rar­er and more expen­sive options- cast­ing from non-fer­rous met­als, as well as com­bi­na­tions of “met­al-glass”, “met­al-ceram­ic”. The cheap­est fences- rein­forc­ing bars, bars, mesh. There are many com­pa­nies involved in the artis­tic pro­cess­ing of met­al, most of them also offer rail­ings for stairs (PARAVOZ, SVAROGART”, “FACTORY OF GERMAN ARTISTIC FORGING”, “RUSSIAN FORGING”, “CRYSTALSC”).

Glass. This is the most uncon­ven­tion­al, avant-garde mate­r­i­al for dec­o­rat­ing stairs. For the man­u­fac­ture of stair steps, glass is used, made using the tech­nol­o­gy of mul­ti-lay­er glu­ing (“triplex”). Two or more lay­ers of glass are inter­con­nect­ed by a poly­mer­ic mate­r­i­al (this can be a liq­uid poly­mer fol­lowed by ultra­vi­o­let irra­di­a­tion or a poly­mer film laid between the lay­ers, fol­lowed by heat­ing in spe­cial ovens). The inter­me­di­ate lay­er of poly­mer is a rein­forc­ing ele­ment and gives the struc­ture a spe­cial strength, and also does not allow glass frag­ments to crum­ble on impact. For the pro­duc­tion of col­ored glass, tint­ing addi­tives are intro­duced into the liq­uid poly­mer. The mass of one stage is 15kg or more (with a size of 100035028mm). For the safe­ty of move­ment on the glass steps, it is rec­om­mend­ed to put anti-slip car­pets, mount inserts made of rub­ber or any oth­er non-slip mate­ri­als. In addi­tion, pro­tec­tive mats will pro­tect the glass from scratch­es. The cost of the stairs is very high and prac­ti­cal­ly does not depend on the design you choose.- the glass steps them­selves are so expen­sive (from$500 per piece). Glass steps are pro­duced by Russ­ian com­pa­nies SAN-MASTER and BAG.

Style

Design, mate­r­i­al, col­or- all this forms the style of the stairs, which ide­al­ly should match the style of the inte­ri­or or even dom­i­nate the house. There is no rigid divi­sion of designs into dif­fer­ent styles, but some pri­or­i­ties have his­tor­i­cal­ly devel­oped. So, the clas­sic inte­ri­or is asso­ci­at­ed with mas­sive wood­en stairs. They are dec­o­rat­ed with com­plex con­fig­u­ra­tion balus­ters, volutes, carved fit­tings. The car­ri­er bow­string has a com­plex con­fig­u­ra­tion. At the same time, the stair­case should be ele­gant and in no case rude. A clas­sic-style room can be dec­o­rat­ed with stuc­co and wood pan­el­ing with the same dec­o­ra­tive ele­ments as the stairs. Coun­try- The style is warm and home­ly. Rough­ly hewn stone, aged ceram­ic steps, a dark wood sur­face with small cracks, or unhewn logs are wel­come here. Cop­per ladles, bou­quets of dried flow­ers or bunch­es of onions are hung on the sides of the stairs. The style of pol­ished met­al, as well as met­al com­bined with glass, is close to tech­no and high tech inte­ri­ors. Wrought iron rail­ings are a tra­di­tion­al ele­ment of Art Nou­veau and Goth­ic styles.

Prices

The cost of a stair­case struc­ture includes the cost of a design project, mate­ri­als, man­u­fac­tur­ing of parts, tak­ing into account the com­plex­i­ty of the cho­sen design (hand­made wood­en balus­ters are more expen­sive than ser­i­al ones), deliv­ery and instal­la­tion. A sim­ple sin­gle-flight pine stair­case with a dis­tance of three meters between floors will cost the cus­tomer about $2000, beech- in $4000, in ash or oak- in $6000. It is also cus­tom­ary to cal­cu­late the cost of one meter of ver­ti­cal rise. For wood­en struc­tures, it aver­ages $1500–2000 per meter, for met­al-wood­en- $1000–1700, for all met­al- $800‑1500, for stone- $2500–5000, for glass- $7000. There is no upper price thresh­old. Most of the struc­tures sold on the mar­ket fit into the inter­val from $5–6 thou­sandto $12–15 thou­sand.

Attic stairs

Attic and mansard stairs have their own spe­cif­ic require­ments. These designs are used quite rarely, they should be invis­i­ble and com­pact.- inin order to save liv­ing space. ATide­al- fits in a small box and is con­ve­nient to unfold when need­ed. These are the “coolest” prod­ucts (the angle of incli­na­tion reach­es 63–74). The Russ­ian mar­ket is rep­re­sent­ed by man­u­fac­tur­ers ALFA SCALE (Italy), CENTURY (USA), HENKE (Ger­many), OMAN (Poland), RINTAL (Italy), ROTO (Ger­many).

Depend­ing on the design, attic stairs are tele­scop­ic (slid­ing) and fold­ing (fold like an accor­dion), and accord­ing to the method of attach­ment- built-in and attached (remov­able). To access the roof, attic stairs are made with a lock­ing device that pro­tects your house from unau­tho­rized access. Fac­to­ry stairs have a height 250–350 cm, On request, oth­er sizes can be made. The cheap­est wood­en stair­case will cost $100–200, most of the mod­els on the mar­ket are $300–400.

Firm Coun­try Mod­el Design Ele­ments mate­ri­als Fas­ten­ing Prod­uct price*, $
ALBINI FONTANOT Italy Scenik Sport screw Bear­ing pole, winder steps, web-type fenc­ing Beech (bleached), alu­minum To the floor and ceil­ing -
ALFA SCALA Italy Vania screw Sup­port, steps, fenc­ing in the form of spi­ral bow­strings The Red tree To the floor and ceil­ing 15000
CAST Italy Mini Elec­tra March­ing, curvi­lin­ear shape Kosour, steps, rail­ings, balus­ters Frame, rail­ing- met­al, sheath­ing- wood To the floor and ceil­ing 7500
LAPEYRE France Pri­ma march­ing, L‑shaped forms Two strings, steps (13–14), ris­ers, rail­ings, balus­ters Toari (Brazil­ian oak) To the floor and ceil­ing 2500
NELUR Italy Nau­tilus March­ing, curvi­lin­ear shape Two bow­strings, winder steps, web-type fenc­ing Bow­string, “web”-metal, steps, rail­ings- beech To the floor and ceil­ing -
RINTAL Italy Gara March­ing, with a turn of 180 Two bow­strings (one attached to the wall), steps, ris­ers, rail­ings, sup­port posts, balus­ters Beech, wrought iron (fenc­ing) To the floor, walls and ceil­ing 6000
“SM SQUARE” Rus­sia Clas­sic March­ing, with a turn of 180 Two bow­strings, steps, ris­ers, sup­port pil­lars, balus­ters Pine/oak To floors, walls and ceil­ings 1600/4700

* — prod­uct — con­di­tion­al stair­case with a width of 1m, height 3m.

The edi­tors thank the firms “INTERIOR ACADEMY”, “EUROSTROYSERVIS‑K”, “CAREX STYLE”, “SAVEKS STAIRS”, “SKVIREL”, “SM KVADRAT” for their help in prepar­ing the mate­r­i­al.

  • Source: Ideas for Your Home Magazine#63

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