One of the most difficult stages in the construction of a house, which requires calculations, the skill of working with a tool and the purchase of a large number of materials — we tell you how to build a roof of a house with your own hands
The house does not have optional elements. Poorly lay the foundation and the structure may not withstand. Save on the material of the floor, walls — you will suffer from drafts. So the roof needs to be done wisely. True, the majority of masters after other works are depleted of resources — financial and personal. In this case, the roof is already being made if only it was. And then they suffer from leaks, they think how to shift the tiles. To help everyone who was going to build the roof of the house with their own hands, KP, together with an expert, prepared instructions.
Step-by-step instructions for building a roof
The roof is one of the most critical building envelopes of any building, and even more so at home. For a private house, pitched roofs are most often chosen. And already at the draft design stage, they understand whether it will be an insulated roof with an attic floor or a classic one with a cold attic,” says technical support specialist of the TechnoNIKOL trading network Stanislav Gapeev.
In shape, pitched roofs are single-pitched, gable, hip, half-hip, tent. The shape of the roof depends not only on the wishes of the future homeowner or architect, but also often due to technical capabilities: the distance between the load-bearing walls, the height of the building, the overall architectural ensemble. The times of chaotic development are slowly fading away and modern settlements are already being built up taking into account the general architectural concept.
The simplest in the production of work can be called single-pitched and gable roofs. Below we publish step-by-step instructions for building a roof.
How to build a pitched roof
First you need to decide on a design project in relation to your home. Let’s say you decide that you will build a shed roof. The project will depend on the area of the building under it.
So for small buildings up to 6 meters in length, it will be enough to support the roof with rafters and Mauerlat.
If the overlap reaches 12 meters, then intermediate bearing racks and supports are additionally mounted.
For large houses of 16–18 meters, the runs must be fastened with an additional fight.
If you don’t know what these construction terms mean, don’t be intimidated. We will explain each unfamiliar word as we go along.
It is based on your calculations. Shed roof calculators can be found on the Internet. This is a time-consuming process that requires a person to have a basic understanding of drawings and sketches. Some hardware stores can help with this. It is important to take into account the load on the rafters and, based on this, determine the laying step, cross section and length.
- The rafter system is the supporting frame, the basis of any pitched roof. As a rule, it is assembled from wood, a board of 100x50 mm is chosen as the rafter legs, the pitch of the rafters is usually 600 mm. But since the truss system is a load-bearing structure, the section of the rafters, the step should be determined by the design calculation with reference to the region. So, for example, the estimated snow load in Yekaterinburg is 210 kg / m2, and in Rostov-on-Don — 140 kg / m2, — says Stanislav Gapeev.
If something is missing in your home workshop, then it’s time to buy the missing tool at the hardware store or on the market along with the order of lumber. You will definitely need a saw, a hacksaw, wood drills, a level, a hammer and various fasteners.
The best hacksaws
The main tool in any workshop
We start installation with Mauerlat
This word came to us from Germany. Mauerlat is a support beam on which the rafters are placed. For installation, take a beam with a cross section of at least 10 × 10 cm.
Since a shed roof does not have a ridge (a rib that forms at the point of contact between two slopes), its role is played by a high wall. We will lay the rafters on two beams, which are placed on both sides.
If the house is wooden, then the upper frame will play the role of the Mauerlat. If the building is made of brick or stone, then you need to lay the support beam. You should first cover it with roofing material — it is sold in rolls and it helps in waterproofing.
Mauerlat is taken out, i.e. move away from the edge of the wall of the house by 50 cm. Fix with anchors in increments of at least a meter. But don’t over tighten them. Level up first. If everything is smooth, then you can mount. Anchors can be replaced with staples or connecting strips.
We lay the rafters
When the support beam is fixed, you can start laying the rafter legs. These are the beams on which the rest of the shed roof sheathing will be installed in the future.
The step between the rafters also requires calculations. The heavier the coating, the shorter the distance. For example, for slate or tiles, it is better to maintain an interval of 600 mm, if the load is higher, then increase the cross section of the rafter leg or choose other materials — LVL beam or rolled metal. For corrugated board, the interval can be made larger.
On the Mauerlat, you need to measure the places where we will embed the rafters. Please note that the rafter legs do not fit right up to the edge of the wall. There should be a gap of 5–7 centimeters.
The grooves for the rafters on the Mauerlat are hollowed out or cut out. The slope is made based on the slope of the roof. To begin with, extreme rafter legs are installed. They are most often nailed with long nails of 12–15 cm each. Then the rest of the rafters are mounted. For convenience, you can stretch a fishing line between the extreme ones, which will serve as a kind of mark and level.
Making a cornice
Do you remember that the rafters should protrude beyond the dimensions of the walls? Otherwise, all precipitation from the roof will flow directly under your feet or onto the wall of the house. You need to make a cornice.
You will need to collect a filly. This is the name of the boards with which the rafters are lengthened so that the cornice comes out. You can make a filly from the same timber, but it should have a smaller width. In order not to cut out, you can pre-purchase a couple of thinner rafter boards. If the house is made of stone or brick, a ruberoid gasket will be needed again.
We install waterproofing
Or it is also called vapor barrier. The cheapest material is a dense polyethylene film. It is better if it is reinforced, that is, reinforced with a special mesh. You can use roofing material or purchase a special insulating membrane.
But this option is only suitable for seasonal houses. If you want a reliable roof, you will also have to fork out for insulation.
We carry out the crate
She will hold the roofing. The most popular material for battens is 50 × 50 mm timber. It is easiest to read about what step and section of the crate to be performed in the instructions for the tile that you have chosen. If you plan to lay slate, then each sheet should have a support of at least four bars: one at the edges and two in the middle. Please note that ondulin is laid on a solid crate, and soft tiles and other rolled materials require a plywood base. We remind you once again: read the instructions for your roof.
We cover the roof
Final stage. At this point, you have collected all the necessary elements and it remains only to lay and fix the coating.
How to build a gable roof
Making or looking for a project
Any construction must begin with a drawing. Visualization of the building will serve more accurate work. When building a gable roof, it is extremely important to determine the angle of inclination. The golden mean is considered to be an angle of at least 25, but not more than 55 degrees. It all depends on the rainfall in your area. Talk to your neighbors, how do they like their roof: does it cope with flows, are there any leaks, breakdowns?
We prepare materials and tools
This stage is no different from what we described in the arrangement of a pitched roof. When you have a drawing, you will at least approximately represent the amount of material that you will need. Go to a hardware store or manufacturer to order timber, purchase, insulation, coating.
We mount the Mauerlat
Bars with a cross section of 10 × 10 to 15 × 15 cm are suitable for it. If the house is wooden, then the extreme beam of the walls acts as a Mauerlat. If the house is made of stone, do not forget to lay a roll of waterproofing: wood and brick should not interact.
Mauerlat gable roof must be strictly horizontal. The level will help. The most reliable fastening of the Mauerlat beam with anchors. You will need to drill holes to install them. Take a drill of the same diameter as your fasteners.
Rafters are selected with a section of 5 × 10 or 10 × 15 cm. They are stacked in increments of about 10 cm. There are different types of gable roofs. The most popular are layered. They consist of two rafter legs, the lower parts of which are held by a Mauerlat. From above they are fastened with a ridge run — this is a kind of skeleton, a horizontal beam that holds the lines. The run itself is installed on vertical racks.
Sloping gable roofs are assembled right at the top. There are hanging rafters. In this case, the farm is collected on the ground. The farm is a triangle knocked together from a bar — rafters, racks. Near the building, the required number of such farms is collected, and then they are raised up. Here you need either special equipment, or to equip an assembly system of ropes. One cannot deal with this.
Waterproofing and insulation
When the rafter legs are installed, you can begin to mount the vapor barrier. Take multilayer polyethylene, which is sold in building stores. It can be easily fixed with a construction stapler. It is better to make two-layer insulation — above and below the rafters. And between them lay a heater. Do not put naked insulation without a film. In a couple of seasons, it will get wet and lose its properties.
The technology of its implementation depends on the type of coating. If you buy a metal tile, then specify the step of the crate for the type of profile from the manufacturer or seller. For flexible tiles, a continuous crate of OSB or FSF plywood is required. But still with a small gap, because. wood expands and dries out.
By this stage, you should have already decided on the roofing material. Since on the basis of this the frame was built. Ondulin, corrugated board, metal tile, composite or something else — it all depends on your preference and wallet.
What work will need to be done when building a roof
Do not forget that it would be nice to treat all wooden elements with an antiseptic before installation. So you “harden” the material and extend the life of the timber. And modern impregnations have a fire-fighting function.
As we have already said, Mauerlat is a support for rafters. A layer between the walls and the roof frame. Some neglect its installation altogether. This is acceptable when installing gazebos, verandas, sheds or latrines. But if you are building a house for living, the roof will not last long without this support belt.
The most popular material for Mauerlat is a solid beam 5 × 15, 10 × 15 cm. Better without knots, cracks and other defects. This is a kind of roof foundation. It must be durable. The last option is to assemble a support from several boards yourself.
Here is a step by step installation guide.
We lay out the beam along the perimeter of the roof: try on and cut it out in the right proportions.
If the wall is stone, we lay bituminous waterproofing. It rolls out on a bearing supporting wall.
We make an indent of 20–50 cm from the edge of the wall and lay the timber.
We check the level of evenness of laying.
We fix it with an anchor, twisted wire or metal brackets.
Installation of rafters
Most often, wooden beams are taken for rafters. Why not metal, if it is stronger? Of course, you can use it, but then you have to do welding. Wooden rafters are layered and hanging.
The rafters abut against the Mauerlat from below and the ridge from above. They gather at the top. Considered easy to install. Laying in this way favors natural ventilation, which is important for preserving the properties of wood.
Hanging rafter legs rest against each other at the top, and from below they are fastened with another beam, which is called a puff. It turns out such a triangle, which builders call a farm. More durable construction, but you will need a few more hands for installation.
Ideally, the designer should calculate the truss system. It is necessary to take into account:
In short, the following principle applies: the greater the load on the roof, the smaller the step between the rafter legs.
How to build a house
Not everyone wants to buy a ready-made house, it is easier for many to build it with their own hands
Arrangement of waterproofing
Without it, it is impossible to build a quality roof of a house. Previously, polyethylene was laid. It doesn’t matter which one, as long as it’s better. But today hardware stores offer a wide range of film in rolls. For certified ones, even the vapor permeability index is calculated. Ideally, it should be less than 1 g/m2.
The insulator is reinforced with a special reinforcing mesh. Additionally, it can be covered with foil to reduce heat loss. Here is the installation order.
Inspect the roof frame: no nails or knots so as not to tear the film.
Measure the length.
Roll out the required piece of material on the ground.
Lift up and fix with a stapler.
Pieces of film are overlapped.
The joints are sealed with tape. It is better if it is a special adhesive tape for insulation.
The film must be stretched.
As we wrote above, ideally there should be two layers of waterproofing: above and below the rafters. Between them lay a basalt insulation with a thickness of at least 250 mm.
Manufacturing of crates
The most reliable material is a timber or coniferous board. They are fastened together with nails. Depending on the type of further coating, a discharged (with a gap of a couple of centimeters) or a solid (with a gap of a couple of millimeters) crate is performed. The second option is suitable for shingles. For others, the former is preferable. However, detailed instructions are in the instructions of the roof manufacturer.
If you are looking for the best coverage, then you should look at the metal tile or flexible tile. The most durable materials are cement-sand and ceramic. Thrifty take a bituminous sheet. Professional sheet or ondulin is more often used for outbuildings or summer houses.
– There are a lot of materials for a pitched roof today, this is due both to the development of technology and to historical experience, because even the first dwellings in the form of a hut also actually had pitched roofs. Today’s choice is metal tile, soft tile, natural tile, cement-sand tile, profiled sheet, reed and others, — says technical support specialist of the TechnoNIKOL trading networkStanislav Gapeev.
Each type of coverage has its own advantages and disadvantages. The most common today can safely be called flexible tiles and metal tiles. Flexible tile is a variety of colors and shapes of cuts, volumetric texture, a small amount of trimming, no corrosion, and it also contributes to an avalanche of snow and does not resonate sound.
Metal tile — a wide range of colors, types of profiles and polymer coatings, high laying speed, especially when it comes to simple one- or two-pitched roofs, a long-known technology. Depending on the material chosen, the pitch and the presence of the crate and counter-crate depend.
For example, for the installation of flexible tiles, the list of actions will look like this:
Rafter system of rafter legs 100x50 mm.
Discharged crate from a bar 50x50mm, the step is determined based on the angle of inclination of the slope, but the minimum step is 300mm.
Solid sheathing of OSB 9–12 mm, the sheets are laid in a space between the seams, leaving a distance of 1 cm between adjacent sheets.
Installation of a lining carpet is recommended over the entire area of the roof and always in the most critical places — cornices, gables, valleys.
Installation of eaves and gable strips.
Installation of the starting strip from ridge-cornice tiles.
Installation of flexible tiles.
To work with flexible tiles, you only need a hand tool: a knife with a retractable blade, a hammer, a marking cord, a tape measure, a gun for sealant for mastic in cartouches, metal scissors for mounting planks.
In the event that your roof is planned with an attic floor, then add another heater to the list of materials. On average in Russia, this is 200–250 mm of light mineral wool boards, a vapor barrier film on the side of the room and a hydro-windproof membrane on the side of the street. And your work will begin with the installation of a vapor barrier and then the entire roofing pie in order.
Popular questions and answers
Which is better: single-pitched or double-pitched roof?
Better well-assembled roof. Each design has its own advantages. A shed roof is much easier to assemble. It is more economical in terms of material consumption. It takes less time to build one. However, with this design, the owners of the house practically deprive themselves of the attic.
Gable roofs are more labor-intensive in terms of do-it-yourself assembly. Collecting one alone will be problematic. At some stage, a second pair of working hands will definitely be needed. Otherwise, you will have to build temporary support structures to support the rafters while you fix them. But you are guaranteed to get a spacious attic. And if it is also insulated, then you get an additional room.
How to insulate the roof?
The required minimum insulation thickness is 200–300 mm. Today, a large number of different materials are available in hardware stores.
Mineral wool is number one in prevalence. More common are made on the basis of basalt and fiberglass. There is a foam insulation, the main advantage of which is a low price and simple laying technology. But it is dependent on heat — there is a risk that it will not survive if the roof of the house is located in the sun for most of the day. If you take a very cheap material, then it can be toxic when heated.
Good reviews are also polystyrene foam boards, isover and glass wool. But all the advantages of modern materials for roof insulation will be leveled if the installation is done incorrectly. Remember that there must be a gap in the crate for ventilation. The insulation must be wider than the step between the rafters, and the vapor barrier layer must protect the material from the external environment.
How can you simplify the construction of the roof with your own hands?
In specialized construction, you can find ready-made pitched roof systems for both a cold attic and an insulated attic. This is a kind of constructor, which immediately includes all the necessary materials: tiles, rafters, insulation, waterproofing, sheathing, wooden flooring. It also comes with pretty accurate assembly instructions. However, such solutions can be more expensive than choosing and buying materials separately. As a rule, these are offered by large manufacturers, which means you can expect decent quality. In addition, in such a store they will help with the calculations.