How to build a bath from a bar with your own hands
A bath is wonderful, and your own is doubly so. Increasingly, a bathhouse is being built on sites from timber, and not from bricks or logs. There are reasons for this, which we will find out together with the experts. So, we build a bath from a bar with our own hands
A bath from a bar has a number of advantages:
it is practical because it is built relatively quickly, does not require external decoration and is easy to keep clean;
ease of installation (a beam is lighter than a log, it is assembled in a short time without the use of complex and expensive mechanisms);
profitability: timber structures are not only cheaper than stone ones, but they also do not require a powerful and deep foundation;
long service life (such a bath can last more than half a century);
environmental friendliness: natural wood creates an excellent microclimate in all bath rooms.
Step-by-step instructions for building a bath from a bar
Step 1. Preparatory stage
This stage is very important, since it is at the beginning that all the advantages and disadvantages of the future structure are laid. At the preparatory stage, you must perform the following work:
bind the future bath on the ground. To do this, it is necessary to determine the terrain, the nature of the soil and the level of groundwater, which will allow you to choose the optimal type of foundation;
drafting a bath and calculating the required materials. It is better to entrust the development of the project to specialists. It will take into account all your individual requirements;
selection and purchase of materials. Especially carefully you need to choose a beam. It should not have even the slightest cracks, wormholes and blue spots, indicating the process of decay. High-quality timber looks perfectly smooth and even.
Step 2. Building the foundation
The foundation is the basis of the future bath, so it should be given special attention. For a low-rise log bath, the following types of foundations can be used: strip, support-pillar and pile-screw.
Strip foundation deepens by 50–80 centimeters, which characterizes it as shallow. It should also protrude at least 0.5 meters above ground level in order to protect the lower beam from dampness and decay. Such a foundation does not require large financial costs and is suitable for non-massive wooden buildings. It can be laid in a freezing layer of soil. The strip foundation is suitable for dry and sandy soils. It is a reinforced concrete frame, which is laid on compacted small gravel or a sand cushion.
Supporting pillar foundation does not involve the use of complex mechanisms and it can be done by hand. It performs well both on dense soils and on sand. Pillars made of brick or concrete blocks are installed at the corners, perimeter and places of the bearing walls of the future bath. The optimal distance between such supports is 1.5 meters. A concrete base should be made under each of the pillars to prevent the process of their subsidence. For strength, any foundation must be strengthened with reinforcement.
Pile screw foundation involves the use of metal prefabricated structures. This type is suitable for almost any soil. It can be built even on a site with a steep slope. It is easy to install it with your own hands, since the installation is quite simple. The pile-screw foundation compacts the soil, it is economical and earthquake-resistant.
Step 3. Foundation waterproofing
The first layer of timber must be waterproofed from the foundation, because moisture will rise through the capillaries and cause the wood to rot. Dampness, fungus and mold occur. To prevent this from happening, a layer of molten bitumen should be applied to the horizontal surface of the foundation. From above it is necessary to lay a continuous layer of roofing material. After the bitumen has hardened, the whole procedure is repeated again.
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Step 4. Assembling the walls from the timber
Before starting the construction of the walls of the bath, you should use the level to check for evenness of the horizontal surface of the beam. All further construction depends on the quality of laying the lower crown of the bath. For the bottom layer, you need to choose a thicker beam, but its length should be the same.
Before laying the first crown, it is required to place thin wooden slats about 15 mm thick, pre-treated with an antiseptic, around the entire perimeter of the foundation. The distance between them (about 30 cm) is filled with insulation or mounting foam. This is done in order to protect the lower bars from rotting and dampness.
The first crown is not fixed, the following layers of timber are placed on it, under the weight of which the bath will shrink. Therefore, it is not worth laying the log house of the bath too tightly.
The erection of walls implies a clear order. First, the crowns are laid, which are aligned and connected to each other using metal pins or wooden dowels. They are driven into specially made holes of the appropriate diameter. Holes are drilled at a distance of 1–1.5 meters. The drill should pass through the top beam and half the bottom. Pins are inserted into the holes, and a layer of insulation is laid.
In the same way, all subsequent crowns of the bath are located. The top two crowns do not need to be fastened, as they will have to be temporarily removed during the installation of the ceiling beams.
After erecting the walls, the bath must stand for shrinkage to occur, which lasts about six months. To protect the timber from getting wet, it is desirable to install a temporary roof with waterproofing.
Step 5: Caulking the Slots
After shrinkage, it is required to caulk the gaps between the bars. For this purpose, jute, felt, tow, sealant are used. Caulker starts from the bottom row, gradually rising up. Tow or felt is hammered into the existing slots using a wooden spatula and a hammer.
It is most convenient to work with jute, as it allows you to save time and achieve the best result. Jute is unwound gradually, placed over the beams and attached to them with nails using a stapler.
Step 6. Roofing
The construction of the roof involves the following works: installation of a support for the roof structure, installation of ceiling beams, creation of a truss structure, waterproofing and insulation of the roof, lathing of the truss system, installation of roofing from roofing material, tiles, metal or ondulin.
The simplest option is the construction of a gable roof. An insulated attic with good ventilation is created under it.
However, if additional living quarters are required, then it is recommended to make the roof broken. This will significantly increase the area of the upper floor, where you can organize a relaxation room or put a billiard table.
Step 7. Installing door and window openings
The installation of door and window openings in a bath from a bar should be taken care of in advance. Already during the construction of the walls, small gaps are left in the right places, which will be expanded with a chainsaw after the bath shrinks.
The dimensions of the doors in the bath are recommended with a height of 1.6–1.8 meters, a width of 0.6–1 meter. The width of the windows is within 0.3 m, and their length is a maximum of 0.9 m. They are usually located at eye level.
Windows are rarely installed in steam rooms.
Step 8. Interior decoration
A bath from a bar gets off, as a rule, only from the inside.
In the steam room, a stove is installed on the foundation. Walls, floors and ceilings can be finished with tiles that are practical, durable and available in a variety of colors and shades. Clapboard trim is also widely used. Hardwood is used (larch, aspen, birch, linden), which does not emit resin at high temperatures and dries quickly.
In other bath rooms, you can also use lining or facing tiles. In these rooms, softwood lining with a pleasant smell is suitable.
When choosing a timber, you should pay attention to the absence of a large number of knots.
To prevent precipitation from penetrating under the foundation, it is necessary to make a blind area on four sides.
When laying and fastening the beam, try not to place the end seams on top of each other.
Insulation should be laid between the bars, which will not only retain heat, but also allow the bar to lie without stress.
To warm the bath, you can use forest moss, which will give additional naturalness to the bath building.
It is better to use outdoor well-insulated electrical wiring.
The stove should be with stones on which water is poured in order to create steam.
Popular questions and answers
Pavel Bunin, owner of the bath complex“Bansk”:
How to reduce the cost of building a bath from a bar?
Despite the fact that even in the standard configuration, baths made of timber are relatively inexpensive, the technology allows you to further reduce costs. But do not forget about the rule: “we save, but we do it competently, without losing the quality of the result.”
Foundation. One of the main stages of construction. It depends on him how much the construction of the bath will cost. When building a bath from a profiled beam, it is enough to make a columnar foundation. It will take two times less materials than tape. Already tangible savings.
Walls. The cost of a bath largely depends on the choice of material. So, a cut timber is comparable in price to the cost of a log; in order to work with this material, it is necessary to have experience in carrying out such construction work. Despite the considerable cost of profiled timber, such material will simplify the stage of construction work. All thanks to the convenient type of connection “thorn in the groove”, which ensures tightness and reduces the cost of thermal insulation of the walls. The most expensive type of wall material is profiled glued laminated timber. Using this material, you will save a lot of time.
Roof. In order for the cost of building a bath to be low and without compromising quality, you can refuse to build a roof with complex architectural forms. There are designs that are simpler to implement, so I advise you to use inexpensive, but reliable and lightweight soft tiles as a roofing material.
Interior decoration. Experienced builders assure that it is impossible to save on the interior decoration of any bath. The comfort and period of operation of the facility depends on this stage. It is necessary to pay attention to the materials that are used in the steam room and washing department. Aspen or larch boards are considered the best option for cladding walls, ceilings and floors. Both breeds are hydrophobic, durable, and most importantly, environmentally friendly. And this is the basic principle in the construction of any bath.
What is better to entrust to specialists?
Compliance with technology, competent calculation of estimates and a responsible approach guarantee high quality and affordable cost of the result, however, there are stages at which we do not recommend saving, it is better to involve specialists.
Project. As with the construction of any object, initially for the bath you need to create a project. To compile it, it is better to contact professional design agencies. Specialists will help to create an individual project, taking into account all the features of the site and give recommendations for the construction. You should not be negligent about this stage, as even the soil on which construction work is planned is being studied by competent agencies.
Material calculation. Any master with extensive experience, even by eye, will be able to estimate the right amount of material. If you apply for the delivery of wood to the supplier, then he will calculate everything on his own and bring the right amount. But rarely, one of them takes into account force majeure circumstances, for example, defective material. Therefore, at this stage, I recommend consulting with specialists.
Are there standards for installing a bath on the site?
The correct location of the bath is the most important stage in construction. There are several important factors to consider when building.
It is worth paying attention to providing a bath with daylight, so you need to focus on the south, southeast, east.
It is important to study the terrain, if there is a slope on the territory, then the bathhouse should be located on an elevated part, this will protect the building from precipitation and groundwater. If this is not possible, take protective measures.
Think in advance about the issue of summing up communications.
No fire safety anywhere.
Currently, there are rules that must be observed:
the minimum distance from the bath to the living quarters is 8 meters; there should be at least 15 meters between a log bath and neighboring houses; to the forest, groves and other places of mass placement of trees — 15 meters; to lakes, rivers, ponds and all that — 5 meters; distance to tall trees, even if it is your own garden — 4 meters; medium-sized trees — 3 meters; shrub vegetation — 1 meter.