We tell you how to build a bath with your own hands, what you need for this and how much money you have to spend
Many people like to go to the bath, but not everyone wants to spend money on visiting it. Fortunately, this is not necessary. You can build a place for soul and relaxation yourself. Together with bathing expert Vera Petrakovich we tell you how to build a bathhouse with your own hands, and how much effort and money it will take.
Step-by-step instructions for building a bath
To build a bath yourself, you need to prepare for this process. Develop a plan, budget and strictly follow it.
First of all, you need to think about the design of your bath. She may be:
Detached — with a steam room, washing and dressing room. If there is an opportunity and a place, then it is realistic to add additional rooms and a second floor here;
On the ground floor of the house — here you just need to allocate a room for a steam room. The rest of the rooms — a washing room, a dressing room — are already there;
An extension to the house — a bathhouse can occupy the territory of the veranda, or it will have to make a separate foundation for it. It is advisable to make an extension to a brick house, it is safer;
A bath on wheels and a bath-barrel are modern options, which are a miniature steam room with a minimum set of bath components. They can be mobile and static. In the latter case, it is not even necessary to establish a foundation.
- The minimum set of baths — a steam room, a washing room and a dressing room. If there is space, you can organize a rest room, but this is not necessary for those who make a bath, for example, in a summer cottage, says Vera.
According to the expert, it is desirable to locate such a room near a reservoir or a source of water supply — a well or a well — then there will be no problems with communications.
2. Schema design
It is better to think over the location of the premises and the dimensions of the structures in advance. To do this, you need to prepare the appropriate drawings. The main rule is to make calculations taking into account the average height of the visitor.
The height of the ceilings in the average bath usually starts from 2 meters and above. At least 1 sq. meters should be allocated in the steam room per person. Dressing room — at least 2 square meters. meters, washing — 1.5 square meters. meters. The more, the better, especially in the steam room, because this is the most important place in the bath.
All figures and indicators must be entered in a special scheme. It should reflect:
schematic layout of the foundation with all dimensions;
wiring diagrams, installation of the furnace, water communications and shelves.
Ready-made drawings are available on the Internet, or they can be ordered from a specialist. Some craftsmen are able to draw a scheme for building a bath with their own hands.
3. The choice of materials for the bath
The base of the bath can be made not only of wood, but also of other materials. Each has its pros and cons. The choice is up to the owners.
Traditional Russian baths are made from this material. Pleasant aroma, natural ingredients — this is what people know and love. The downside is reliability. Wood deteriorates from water, is flammable, “loved” by insects. In this regard, it needs special treatment with antiseptics.
Logs. Most often it is pine, oak, larch. The principle of laying — thorn-groove. It is important to consider that the logs are quite heavy, one cannot cope with the installation;
Bar. Frame structure that is easy to erect. If you need to make a solid foundation for the logs, then a lightweight one is enough here. It is advisable to take a beam from pine, linden (only for interior decoration) or aspen, it is the most expensive, but retains heat well;
Carriage. These are the same logs, only due to processing they are not round, but rectangular. They are connected according to the principle of the “Norwegian castle”, where, thanks to the corner connection and the process of self-jamming when drying, the wood is very close to each other, retaining heat and ensuring reliability. The carriage can be from classic breeds, cedar is also popular. Among the minuses — an expensive price;
Boards. The simplest baths are assembled from ready-made pallets or individual boards. They are fixed with special fasteners, self-tapping screws, wooden dowels.
The concrete blocks from which the bathhouse is built are made from sawdust mixed with cement. Such material is inexpensive, it is convenient to assemble it and it weighs lightly. However, this material conducts heat poorly and is unstable to moisture.
A bath made of stone has a long service life. Buildings made of ceramic or clinker bricks do not require additional cladding, they are safe and can be used frequently without much damage.
Brick baths must have a solid foundation. The most reliable is a monolithic tape. It is not so easy to install, but there will be big problems with it. The stone is expensive, does not pass air well and requires insulation from the inside.
Also, cheaper alternatives to brick can be used as materials: foam blocks, cinder blocks, gas blocks and expanded clay blocks.
4. Choice of location
This item can be attributed to the layout, but still it is better to say about it separately. Experts recommend making the front door in the bath on the south side, so that in winter it would be easier to enter it. It is better to put windows on the sunny side so that the room is well lit without electricity.
- Do not forget about fire safety rules. It is advisable to place such a building at a distance of at least 10–15 meters from the house, Petrakovich shares.
Moreover, the rules for the location of the bath are prescribed in the legislation:
the distance to the neighboring fence is more than a meter;
to a wooden building built in the neighborhood — from 15 meters;
to the house on the site — more than 8 meters;
from 5 meters and above — distance from the road and the street;
from 6 to 11 meters — distance to structures made of non-combustible materials;
5 meters — the distance to the nearest reservoir;
15 meters — distance to the forest;
within one meter there should be no shrubs;
there should be no tall trees within 4 meters;
at least 12 meters should be indented from the well or well.
5. Interior arrangement
The choice of materials must be considered not only for the external arrangement of the bath, but also for the internal one. In particular, it is important to take care of thermal insulation. If the bath is under the same roof as the house, then the outside is used. When this is a separate building, then internal insulation is sufficient.
Thermal insulation in the bath must be hygroscopic, do not contain toxins, have low thermal conductivity, comply with fire safety standards and retain its shape. For those who make a bath with their own hands, such quality as ease of fastening is also important.
Another necessary point is vapor barrier. The following elements are used for it:
film with a reinforcing coating;
non-woven fabric membrane;
You should also consider the issue of communication. If the bath is attached to the house, then this will be easier to deal with. In particular, this applies to water supply.
- In order for the bath to be dry, it is necessary to properly debug the departure and flow of water in it, — our interlocutor notes. — Drainage, sewerage, everything must be done correctly.
To supply water from a well or reservoir, it will be necessary to purchase a special pump for this purpose. Water enters through a pipe, which must be sealed. It is also necessary to take care of waterproofing.
By the way, if you do not plan to use the bath often, then it is not necessary to carry water there. You can bring the required amount of it with you in bottles or other containers.
What work will need to be done when building a bath
When there is an understanding of how to build a bathhouse with your own hands, a diagram has been drawn up, the necessary materials have been purchased, then you need to get down to business. We tell you where to start.
Site preparation and foundation pouring
Under the bath you need a flat area — no grass, other vegetation and debris. The top layer of soil is removed at the level of 15–20 cm. You mark the perimeter with pegs, on which you pull the rope.
Next, you have to dig a trench, holes for poles (if the bath is framed) or a foundation pit. It all depends on what type of structure you will have and with what reason. For baths made of bricks or logs, it is better to make a monolithic concrete tape with a small level of penetration. In such cases, use reinforcement before pouring the foundation.
It is interesting
Step-by-step instructions for building a bath from a bar
As mentioned above, a lot here depends on the materials from which your bath will be. If you are making it from stone blocks or bricks, then you should first level the base with cement and, after drying, cover it with a roofing material folded in half, which will take over the functions of waterproofing.
Laying walls should start from the corners. It is important to observe the plane to ensure that the structures are located on the same level. The brick is laid on a mixture of cement and sand. Block structures — on glue. At the places where the windows and the door will be located, jumpers are mounted. It is also necessary to create an armored belt that will tie all the walls of the building into a single frame. Roof bolts are fixed on it. The roof is erected when the solutions used in the fastening of the elements gain strength.
Logs are stacked according to the tenon-groove principle. Considering their weight, you will need an assistant. It is better to take not bare untreated logs, but rounded ones, the same in cross section.
A light foundation is enough for a beam. The assembly from it is called frame, it is considered one of the fastest. The walls are made according to the type of lattice. First, the lower strapping of the beam is assembled, the elements are fastened with screws or mounted end-to-end on metal corners, then the strapping board is mounted at the end, which is adjacent to the floor logs, they are cut from the back side so that another end board for strapping is installed. The logs should be placed so that a heat insulator is placed between them, mineral wool is ideal. For the lower strapping of the timber, dimensions of 100x100 mm are suitable. Under the frame of the walls — 50x100 mm. For vapor barrier it is better to use a film. The outer and inner lining is usually made from edged boards, lining, OSB or siding. Sheathing and thermal insulation in the frame bath is done after the installation of the roof.
Easy to install and a bath of pallets and boards. They are fastened together with self-tapping screws or wooden dowels. The position can be either vertical or horizontal.
Here the laying goes according to the “puff” type. First come the logs, which can be metal, wood, polymer or reinforced concrete. Then the subfloor, vapor barrier tape, insulation, waterproofing and top decking.
In a bath from a bar, the floor is easier to make. First comes the insulation layer, and then the finishing board.
Vera Petrakovich is sure that the floor should be made of tiles. Under it, you can install a concrete base. If we are not talking about a steam room, then the floor can be left made of wood, but in a room where it is very hot, this is not recommended.
The roof can be double-pitched or single-pitched. The first option is suitable if your bath is located in a place where there is no strong wind. The second is for a bath attached to the house.
The construction of the roof begins with the installation of a mauerlat, on which the roof truss system is fixed. Next, you need to lay a layer of waterproofing and fix the laths of the crate. The last step is laying the roof. Suitable slate, roofing material, shingles and other materials at your discretion. Often, for example, a profiled sheet is used. It is also recommended to install a heat-insulating layer on the ceiling for the reliability of the bath.
As the expert points out, the stove must be selected according to the volume of the steam room. A full-fledged brick oven will be an integral part of the structure and a separate foundation will need to be laid under it. Such a stove retains heat for a long time and warms up the steam room better. When building a brick oven, refractory clay is used.
If you have a small steam room, then you can purchase a metal stove. They come with heat exchangers, they heat both the bath and the water. Such structures can be lined with natural stone — it gives a soft, radiant warmth. But this device is unsafe and, as a rule, sheets of metal are laid next to the stove.
Iron stoves are closed, where the firebox is at the bottom, the heater is in the middle, and the water tank is on top, and open — with stones laid outside.
The pipe at the furnace must be with a direct outlet so that it does not become clogged.
The insulation is placed between the bars, which are attached to the inside of the walls at a distance of 40–50 cm from each other. Experts recommend the use of mineral wool. It is closed with a vapor barrier film, which, in turn, is closed with a finishing material. For the last layer, take boards up to 2–4 cm from aspen, linden or alder. In no case should conifers be used in a steam room, as they release resin when heated. Lumber from OSB and fiberboard is also prohibited.
Installation of partitions and shelves
Partitions in the bath are also made of special wooden bars. Their task is to separate separate rooms. Already in the floor joists, a place should be provided for its installation and fixing.
Shelves in the steam room should be as comfortable as possible. It is desirable to do it in 2 or even 3 tiers — in the form of large steps. The distance to the ceiling is at least 100–120 cm. From the floor to the first shelf, the distance should be at least 30–45 cm. The gap between the tiers is 50 cm. The shelves should be wide for sitting and lying, 80–90 cm should be enough. Length, preferably at least 180 cm, so that you can stretch your legs.
The frame of the shelf is assembled from timber. An edged polished board is mounted to it.
Ventilation in the bath is of two types — natural and forced. Windows provide the first — cold air enters through one, hot air leaves through the second. The second implies a built-in device powered by electricity.
Install heated ceramic tiles to warm up the room faster.
If the area allows, make washing and steam rooms separately from each other.
Build a bathhouse near a pond.
The main thing in the bath is good stones that give radiant heat. Talcochlorite is considered not the most ideal option — it has an unpleasant odor. Jade and jadeite are perfect for a stove in a bath, but they are very expensive.
Where there is good steam, you do not need a lot of water, it itself performs cleansing functions. For washing, a few eggplants with water are enough.
For exterior decoration of the bath, siding, painting, decorative elements, facade tiles, lining, lined bricks and wall panels are used.
Popular questions and answers
How to reduce the cost of building a bath?
A smart selection of items will help reduce costs. So, when building a frame from logs, it is better to choose pine, and not oak or larch. If the moment is not fundamental, then in general it is better to choose a different type of structure — frame baths from timber will be cheaper. Even cheaper is a simplified bath made of pallets or boards. If you want to build a bath from blocks, then wood concrete looks the most affordable. For vapor barrier, the cheapest option is a film. For insulation — cotton wool.
You can save money if you make a bathhouse as an extension to the house. Then there will be no need to purchase an abundance of building materials.
What is better to entrust to specialists?
If you want to build a brick separate bath, then it is better to entrust this to people who have masonry experience — from pouring the foundation to installing the roof. It is also desirable to hand over to professionals the conduct of communications and the installation of waterproofing.
Do I need to legalize the bath on the site?
Not necessary. It is necessary to legalize the use of wells, where there are certain restrictions on tariffs. But not everyone uses them for their bath.