How to build a house with your own hands

Not every­one wants to buy a ready-made house, for many it is eas­i­er, cheap­er and more com­fort­able to build it with their own hands so that it is tru­ly ver­sa­tile and indi­vid­ual. Read our step-by-step instruc­tions with expert advice and every­thing will work out!
How to build a house with your own hands
How to build a house with your own hands. Pho­to: pixabay.com

Liv­ing in your own home away from the bus­tle of the city is a con­scious choice for many peo­ple. This deci­sion is often made because of such strik­ing advan­tages as: a pri­vate gar­den, an orga­nized bar­be­cue area, a com­fort­able out­door play­ground, an indi­vid­ual park­ing space. There­fore, to build your own house, but at the same time real­ly cozy and func­tion­al, is an impor­tant life stage for any fam­i­ly.

Step by step instructions for building a house

Build­ing a house is a com­plex mul­ti-stage process, which is being worked on by spe­cial­ists from dif­fer­ent fields. If you are con­fi­dent in your own abil­i­ties and have exten­sive expe­ri­ence in con­struc­tion, then build­ing a house with your own hands will help save the fam­i­ly bud­get sig­nif­i­cant­ly. The main thing is to adhere to the exist­ing work algo­rithm, only in this way it will be pos­si­ble to com­plete the con­struc­tion with­out unnec­es­sary errors.

Ana­lyz­ing where to start build­ing a house, first do a series of prepara­to­ry work, which will lat­er leave its mark on the final appear­ance of the home. These include: prepa­ra­tion of a plot of land on which the future house will be built, con­tact­ing ser­vice orga­ni­za­tions in order to clar­i­fy the future con­nec­tion to com­mu­ni­ca­tions, reg­is­tra­tion of a geo­det­ic study from a spe­cial­ized com­pa­ny to deter­mine the struc­ture of the soil (this will help to lay the required type of foun­da­tion with­out risk).




The desire to save mon­ey when build­ing a house is not always accept­ed at the fin­ish line. What to build from depends on finan­cial capa­bil­i­ties and per­son­al pref­er­ences. There­fore, the future own­er deter­mines the min­i­mum thresh­old for costs, tak­ing into account cur­rent prices for mate­ri­als and work. It is impor­tant to remem­ber that the frame of the build­ing must be strong and able to with­stand fair­ly large loads under dif­fer­ent weath­er con­di­tions. In addi­tion to the exte­ri­or dec­o­ra­tion of the house, funds will also be required for inte­ri­or dec­o­ra­tion and land­scap­ing.

In order not to increase your expens­es in the future, make a visu­al esti­mate, which will reflect in detail all stages of con­struc­tion. The fore­man will help to make a com­pe­tent esti­mate. The exact bud­get will depend on the indi­vid­ual char­ac­ter­is­tics of the house — area, num­ber of storeys, pur­pose, sea­son­al­i­ty of use, etc.


A typ­i­cal project is by far the most ide­al tem­plate that will help you start con­struc­tion and not linger for a long time at the stage of design work. The best solu­tion would be to pur­chase it from pro­fes­sion­al archi­tec­tur­al and con­struc­tion com­pa­nies or bureaus. It is extreme­ly impor­tant to receive a com­plete pack­age of ser­vices when pur­chas­ing a fin­ished project. It should include:

  • archi­tec­tur­al sec­tionwhich includes detailed infor­ma­tion about the lay­out, exte­ri­or dec­o­ra­tion of the build­ing, spec­i­fi­ca­tions of doors and win­dows;
  • con­struc­tive sec­tion, devel­oped by a design engi­neer, which reflects in detail the plans for the foun­da­tion, roof, ceil­ings, walls and char­ac­ter­is­tic nodes. The con­trac­tor, per­form­ing con­struc­tion work, will first of all be guid­ed by this doc­u­ment;
  • engi­neer­ing sec­tionwhich con­tains all the infor­ma­tion about engi­neer­ing net­works, name­ly: water sup­ply and san­i­ta­tion, heat­ing and ven­ti­la­tion, pow­er sup­ply.

Many decide to use the down­loaded ver­sion from the Inter­net, but this is often more expen­sive — most of the options avail­able reflect an illit­er­ate lay­out. To choose the right project for your fam­i­ly to live com­fort­ably, be guid­ed by lifestyle and per­son­al pref­er­ences — they will ulti­mate­ly deter­mine the para­me­ters of the house and affect the final cost.

Lay­out and con­fig­u­ra­tion. In most cas­es, many options have com­plex shapes that will only increase the cost of con­struc­tion. Afford­able accord­ing to their pric­ing pol­i­cy will be archi­tec­tur­al projects with lay­outs of a sim­ple rec­tan­gu­lar or square shape, with­out bay win­dows and ledges, as well as oth­er expen­sive ele­ments. The num­ber of orga­nized premis­es and their area should be con­sid­ered based on the num­ber of res­i­dents or pos­si­ble fre­quent vis­its of guests.

Do you need a sec­ond floor. In a two-sto­ry house, of course, you need a lad­der to con­nect with the sec­ond floor. Its pres­ence and choice of form will also affect the final cost. An eco­nom­i­cal solu­tion would be a one-sto­ry house with­out expen­sive ceil­ings and stairs.

Foun­da­tion type, which will cost a more rea­son­able price — shal­low. Its instal­la­tion does not require exten­sive prepa­ra­tion.

roof shape. A gable roof, although the most stan­dard form, is reli­able and ratio­nal for its price. Com­plex roof struc­tures with many slopes and sky­lights will increase con­struc­tion costs.

win­dow shape. The tra­di­tion­al rec­tan­gu­lar shape of win­dows is always cheap­er than non-stan­dard solu­tions.



Facade dec­o­ra­tion. For fin­ish­ing the facade, you can choose an inter­est­ing plas­ter, which not only has good dura­bil­i­ty char­ac­ter­is­tics, but also gives the appear­ance of the build­ing aes­thet­ics with­out hit­ting the wal­let.

Fin­ish­ing facil­i­ties. For inte­ri­or dec­o­ra­tion of the house, you can use a min­i­mum of dec­o­ra­tive ele­ments.

• Addi­tion­al premis­es. They can serve as a built-in garage, sauna, spa­cious dress­ing room.

A gable roof, although the most stan­dard form, is reli­able and ratio­nal for its price. Pho­to: globallookpress.com

Material selection

Mate­ri­als, like all work, must be reflect­ed in the esti­mate. When choos­ing them, pre­fer build­ing and fin­ish­ing mate­ri­als that have a man­u­fac­tur­er’s cer­tifi­cate. So you will be sure of their qual­i­ty, avoid dis­ap­point­ments in the exte­ri­or or roof­ing after using the house for a cou­ple of sea­sons. Explore the mod­ern build­ing mate­ri­als mar­ket, read cus­tomer reviews.

The con­struc­tion of a house in most cas­es is often delayed or tem­porar­i­ly sus­pend­ed due to the win­ter peri­od. There­fore, most of the mate­ri­als are pur­chased in reserve and prop­er­ly stored, oth­er­wise their qual­i­ty may suf­fer. This con­di­tion pri­mar­i­ly applies to wood­en struc­tures, bricks, dry mix­es.

There are sev­er­al types of hous­es.

frame — a pre­fab­ri­cat­ed struc­ture con­sist­ing of a wood­en frame and insu­la­tion, as well as exter­nal and inter­nal dec­o­ra­tion. This option is con­sid­ered one of the most bud­getary, while hav­ing weak char­ac­ter­is­tics of dura­bil­i­ty and strength. Such a house does not with­stand dynam­ic loads well, so if you install a wash­ing machine, you will need to build a sep­a­rate base under it. This type of house is not suit­able for oper­a­tion for decades, because it does not have the prop­er cap­i­tal.

log cab­in — a wood­en frame, the walls of which are assem­bled from processed logs. In turn, each log has a cor­ner joint and a groove, which allows you to con­ve­nient­ly and very quick­ly build a house. This type is more durable. Both in hot and cold sea­sons, a favor­able micro­cli­mate always reigns inside this type of house. It is not dif­fi­cult to heat it, and you will not need a heavy, buried base device. How­ev­er, the sus­cep­ti­bil­i­ty of wood to com­bustibil­i­ty and attack by par­a­sites is a sig­nif­i­cant dis­ad­van­tage.

Brick, aer­at­ed con­crete - a stone struc­ture, the enclos­ing struc­tures (walls) of which are made of ceram­ic bricks or aer­at­ed con­crete blocks. Brick is con­sid­ered envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly and non-com­bustible. It also has reli­a­bil­i­ty and dura­bil­i­ty, good resis­tance to dif­fer­ent weath­er con­di­tions. How­ev­er, com­pared to a log house, it will require a strong foun­da­tion. The aer­at­ed con­crete type of house, in turn, will also be a durable and reli­able option, and com­pared to brick, a shal­low strip or col­umn foun­da­tion can be erect­ed under its walls (only if a one-sto­ry house is planned).

Mono­lith­ic, rein­forced con­crete - a one-piece cast struc­ture, the walls and ceil­ings of which are con­crete, which is ini­tial­ly poured into the form­work. The frame of this type of house is the most durable and able to with­stand heavy loads. Also, the advan­tages of such a struc­ture include the pos­si­bil­i­ty of cre­at­ing a house of any con­fig­u­ra­tion, the use of free plan­ning, and quick con­struc­tion. A light­weight type of foun­da­tion is suit­able for it, all con­crete work will be more prof­itable (since one con­trac­tor can per­form mono­lith­ic work).



Coordination with technical supervision

After you have decid­ed on the type of future home, you must obtain a manda­to­ry approval for a build­ing per­mit. To do this, con­tact the local admin­is­tra­tion, where they will give you a list of doc­u­ments, it may vary in dif­fer­ent regions. After you col­lect all the doc­u­ments, the head of admin­is­tra­tion will decide on grant­i­ng a build­ing per­mit. With a pos­i­tive con­clu­sion, the appli­cant is issued a spe­cial res­o­lu­tion.

If you start­ed build­ing a house with­out the per­mis­sion of the admin­is­tra­tion, then lat­er it is nec­es­sary to legal­ize it as a self-con­struc­tion, while pay­ing a fine.

This is use­ful

Do-it-your­self elec­tric under­floor heat­ing for tiles

What work will need to be done when building a house

Before start­ing con­struc­tion work on the site, you need to think about orga­niz­ing access roads and stor­ing build­ing mate­ri­als, putting up a fence, sup­ply­ing water and elec­tric­i­ty, as well as installing a tem­po­rary toi­let and orga­niz­ing a place for garbage. In accor­dance with fire and san­i­tary stan­dards, the axes of the build­ing must be placed on the site. From the bound­aries of the site where there is no road, it is nec­es­sary to make an indent of at least 3 m on each side where it is — at least 5 m. The process of build­ing a house is quite labo­ri­ous and con­sists of suc­ces­sive stages.

Foundation and earthworks

The con­clu­sion of the sew­er­age and the place of entry of the water sup­ply should be car­ried out before pour­ing the foun­da­tion itself. For them, trench­es are spe­cial­ly dug, then pipes are laid and insu­lat­ed. Then the foun­da­tion is laid, by orga­niz­ing a pit, on the bot­tom of which a crushed stone pil­low is laid. Form­work is used to fill the foun­da­tion under the walls of the future house. A mono­lith­ic type of foun­da­tion is con­sid­ered the best and more bud­get option for the con­struc­tion of pri­vate hous­es.

There are dif­fer­ent types of foun­da­tion, each of which has its own dif­fer­ences in pour­ing tech­nol­o­gy and nuances. The fol­low­ing fac­tors will help you choose the right type of foun­da­tion:

  • Soil cat­e­go­ry — the most impor­tant fac­tor that deter­mines the bear­ing capac­i­ty of the foun­da­tion in the future.
  • Loca­tion of ground­wa­ter — if there is a close loca­tion of ground­wa­ter on the site, it will be nec­es­sary to orga­nize a drainage sys­tem, since they are able to exert sig­nif­i­cant pres­sure on the walls of the foun­da­tion.
  • Soil freez­ing lev­el — will help deter­mine the depth of the foun­da­tion foun­da­tion.
  • Ter­rain and seis­mic activ­i­ty of the con­struc­tion region — the main task of these two fac­tors is to pro­vide a flat plat­form for the future base of the foun­da­tion and exclude the influ­ence of soil vibra­tions on the build­ing.
  • Base­ment — the area under the house itself is often used, for exam­ple, as a cel­lar for house­hold needs or an under­ground garage, so the foun­da­tion must be reli­able, while simul­ta­ne­ous­ly ful­fill­ing its intend­ed pur­pose and the func­tion of walls for equipped premis­es.
  • Load types — the sta­t­ic load of the house is deter­mined by the num­ber of storeys, the weight of all fur­ni­ture, plumb­ing, equip­ment, etc. This is exact­ly what will con­tin­u­ous­ly and con­stant­ly affect the foun­da­tion.
  • The pres­ence of under­ground com­mu­ni­ca­tions — build­ing codes reg­u­late the min­i­mum dis­tances from the future foun­da­tion to under­ground util­i­ties.
When build­ing a house, you need to take into account the ter­rain, the cat­e­go­ry of soil and the loca­tion of ground­wa­ter. Pho­to: pixabay.com

Foundation types

Brick, from a bar - this type of foun­da­tion is able to with­stand only the load from the light­est build­ings, so it is suit­able for a gaze­bo, bath­house, green­house or sum­mer house.

Colum­nar — this type implies the instal­la­tion of sup­port pil­lars under the key nodes of the future house. Also suit­able for light build­ings, often used in areas where the ground is sub­ject to move­ment. How­ev­er, a sig­nif­i­cant dis­ad­van­tage of this type of foun­da­tion can be called the lack of orga­ni­za­tion of the base­ment.

pile — for pri­vate con­struc­tion, this type of foun­da­tion is rarely used, because, hav­ing impec­ca­ble sta­bil­i­ty, it is more in demand for the con­struc­tion of more cap­i­tal, heavy build­ings. The design con­sists of poles with point­ed ends, which are applic­a­ble if mov­ing soil or ground­wa­ter is locat­ed close to the site.

Pile-screw — This is a type of pile type, but dif­fers in the mate­r­i­al of the pile pil­lars. In this embod­i­ment, instead of con­crete, met­al ones are used, which are screwed into the ground, and a gril­lage is mount­ed on top. Suit­able for areas with uneven ter­rain and prob­lem­at­ic soil.



Tape — one of the most com­mon types of foun­da­tion in the con­struc­tion of pri­vate hous­es. Its base is a closed tape along the con­tour. The pop­u­lar­i­ty is explained by such advan­tages as high bear­ing capac­i­ty, sim­ple con­struc­tion tech­nol­o­gy, con­trolled depth of lay­ing, which allows you to even­ly dis­trib­ute the load of the whole house on the soil.

Tape, shal­low — a kind of tape type, which also allows you to get a high-qual­i­ty foun­da­tion for the walls of the future house, only this will require less finan­cial invest­ment than if you build a tape one.

Mono­lith­ic — of all options, the most expen­sive in terms of the cost of mate­ri­als and work, how­ev­er, it has the prop­er reli­a­bil­i­ty and dura­bil­i­ty for decades. The choice in his favor is obvi­ous when the soil on the site is mobile (peat or marsh, heav­ing or float­ing soil). This type of foun­da­tion is not laid to the depth of freez­ing, but at the same time it can with­stand sig­nif­i­cant loads due to its unique abil­i­ty to move along with the soil.

Rein­force­ment is con­sid­ered a pre­req­ui­site for pour­ing most types of foun­da­tion. Con­crete is poured only after instal­la­tion of rein­force­ment. Do not for­get that the foun­da­tion must stand for some time (this con­di­tion depends on the type) and gain the nec­es­sary strength, only then it will be pos­si­ble to start build­ing walls.


It is nec­es­sary to build exter­nal and inter­nal walls at the same time. Thus, the load on the foun­da­tion is even­ly dis­trib­uted. The cost of work on their con­struc­tion is 40% of the cost of all planned work. There­fore, you need to treat the choice of mate­r­i­al wise­ly so as not to suf­fer seri­ous expens­es in the future. The fol­low­ing fac­tors will help deter­mine the mate­r­i­al from which the walls will be built:

  • Mate­r­i­al cost — can be sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduced if you choose a light­weight option for walls. For exam­ple, the frame type ful­ly cor­re­sponds to this seg­ment. In this case, the orga­ni­za­tion of a pow­er­ful and expen­sive foun­da­tion foun­da­tion will not even be required.
  • ther­mal insu­la­tion — an impor­tant con­di­tion that is also worth tak­ing care of. After all, cold walls in win­ter will cost you sig­nif­i­cant­ly more. Make a cal­cu­la­tion and pay atten­tion to the cli­mat­ic con­di­tions where you plan to build a house. Mod­ern heaters will always help to achieve the desired result, because they have good ther­mal insu­la­tion prop­er­ties.
  • Labor costs — the labor-inten­sive process of build­ing walls can be slight­ly adjust­ed if the walls are not made of small-piece mate­r­i­al, but, for exam­ple, from large blocks or frame-pan­el ele­ments. Thus, the con­struc­tion process will be eas­i­er and faster.
  • Exte­ri­or fin­ish­ing costs — among the many mod­ern build­ing mate­ri­als, there are those that do not require addi­tion­al wall dec­o­ra­tion from you, so this con­di­tion will help save time and mon­ey.

There are a lot of types of suit­able mate­ri­als for walls on the mod­ern con­struc­tion mar­ket, in addi­tion, each of them has its own char­ac­ter­is­tics, which will allow us to judge the advan­tages and dis­ad­van­tages.

This is use­ful

Sim­ple repair tips will help you not to get con­fused in this mat­ter

Ceram­ic and sil­i­cate brick — a fair­ly heavy mate­r­i­al for walls, has good strength and envi­ron­men­tal char­ac­ter­is­tics. It is resis­tant to dif­fer­ent weath­er con­di­tions and looks aes­thet­i­cal­ly expen­sive. Ceram­ic and sil­i­cate bricks can be sol­id and hol­low. Due to well-thought-out holes, its ther­mal insu­la­tion prop­er­ties only improve.

ceram­ic block — one of the durable mate­ri­als for the con­struc­tion of walls. You can build a house out of it quite cheap­ly and quick­ly. The dimen­sions of the ceram­ic block can be dif­fer­ent, but its height is equal to the size of the brick­work, so you can build accord­ing to the design of a brick house. Also, this mate­r­i­al has frost resis­tance and fire resis­tance. How­ev­er, it is quite frag­ile, so it must be care­ful­ly trans­port­ed and stored.

Cel­lu­lar con­crete (aer­at­ed con­crete and foam con­crete) — one of the promis­ing mate­ri­als for the con­struc­tion of walls of pri­vate hous­es, which is used for per­ma­nent res­i­dence. Aer­at­ed con­crete and foam con­crete have in fact the same good char­ac­ter­is­tics as brick or ceram­ic block, cre­at­ing a favor­able micro­cli­mate in any room. They dif­fer from each oth­er only in man­u­fac­tur­ing tech­nol­o­gy. The advan­tages also include dura­bil­i­ty, non-com­bustibil­i­ty, envi­ron­men­tal friend­li­ness, resis­tance to low tem­per­a­tures, ease of instal­la­tion, low weight. The lev­el of per­me­abil­i­ty of a house made of cel­lu­lar con­crete can be com­pared with a house built of wood.



Round­ed log (log) - a tra­di­tion­al ver­sion of the mate­r­i­al for build­ing hous­es of for­mer Rus­sia. Envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly, has good ther­mal insu­la­tion prop­er­ties, does not actu­al­ly require exte­ri­or and inte­ri­or dec­o­ra­tion, it will require a light foun­da­tion. But there are also dis­ad­van­tages: the tree is a com­bustible mate­r­i­al, it is sub­ject to rot­ting, fun­gus and pest attack, there­fore it will require reg­u­lar main­te­nance, in addi­tion, the shrink­age of such a house is con­sid­ered prob­lem­at­ic.

Glued pro­filed tim­ber - from the cat­e­go­ry of wood, as a mate­r­i­al for the walls of the future home, the best option. This mate­r­i­al was cre­at­ed using oth­er tech­nolo­gies, so it is not sub­ject to shrink­age and, accord­ing­ly, will be more expen­sive. Also, one of the advan­tages is the absence of the need for exter­nal and inter­nal wall dec­o­ra­tion, you can only use spe­cial paint and a beau­ti­ful aes­thet­ic view of the house is pro­vid­ed. How­ev­er, a house made of this mate­r­i­al can­not be con­sid­ered ener­gy effi­cient due to insuf­fi­cient resis­tance to heat trans­fer. It is advis­able to choose glued pro­filed tim­ber if main gas is used for heat­ing the house.

Frame house - a more bud­get option, from which you can build the walls of the house. The basis of this type of con­struc­tion is a frame made of wood and met­al. Such hous­es are char­ac­ter­ized by low weight, the high­est assem­bly speed, and sig­nif­i­cant ther­mal insu­la­tion prop­er­ties. Among the short­com­ings, one can sin­gle out the increased labor inten­si­ty at the fin­ish­ing stage of the exte­ri­or dec­o­ra­tion, such a house will last less than a brick one, the lay­outs are usu­al­ly the most stan­dard.

Thus, con­sid­er­ing the above build­ing mate­ri­als, be guid­ed by the dura­tion of their ser­vice life — for a long-term and com­fort­able per­spec­tive, hous­es built of cel­lu­lar con­crete (aer­at­ed con­crete) or brick are ide­al. A frame house is an alter­na­tive option when finan­cial pos­si­bil­i­ties are lim­it­ed, but at the same time you can find a tru­ly warm and mod­ern house.


When the frame of the house is final­ly installed, you can pro­ceed to the final stage under con­struc­tion — the instal­la­tion of the roof. The roof struc­ture is also one of the main and impor­tant parts of any build­ing, so it must be reli­ably pro­tect­ed from dif­fer­ent weath­er con­di­tions. In accor­dance with the cho­sen project of the house and the mate­r­i­al, the meth­ods of installing the roof may vary. Dif­fer­ent types of roofs, first of all, dif­fer in design fea­tures and shapes.

Shed — the sim­plest type of roof for its instal­la­tion, so its con­struc­tion can be done by hand. Such a roof is most often installed on an out­build­ing or garage, when two walls have dif­fer­ent heights. The con­struc­tion of this type on res­i­den­tial build­ings is rarely used.

Gable - the most com­mon type of roof, which is ide­al for small hous­es. Despite its sim­plic­i­ty, it is reli­able and durable: thanks to the con­nec­tion of two sym­met­ri­cal slopes, the dis­tri­b­u­tion of loads on the walls and the Mauer­lat occurs even­ly. In addi­tion, any roof­ing mate­r­i­al is suit­able for cov­er­ing this roof. Among the short­com­ings can be attrib­uted the impos­si­bil­i­ty of cre­at­ing a full-fledged attic floor.

Chetyrekhskat­naya - folds at a com­mon point with the ver­tices of four tri­an­gles (form­ing slopes), which can be dif­fer­ent in shape. Such a roof is high­ly resis­tant to var­i­ous atmos­pher­ic phe­nom­e­na, it can be used to real­ize orig­i­nal ideas, there­by giv­ing the appear­ance of the house an archi­tec­tur­al sophis­ti­ca­tion. The dis­ad­van­tages include: the com­plex­i­ty of the imple­men­ta­tion of this design (pro­fes­sion­als will be required), the sig­nif­i­cant weight of the roof struc­ture (rein­force­ment of enclos­ing struc­tures will be required), high con­sump­tion of roof­ing mate­ri­als.

Mansard - this type of roof is in demand when the ques­tion aris­es of increas­ing the liv­ing space of a pri­vate house. The design of the mansard roof is designed in such a way that it allows you to ful­ly use the result­ing space as a liv­ing space. The advan­tages of this type of roof can also be attrib­uted to: an ade­quate cost of its imple­men­ta­tion, good insu­la­tion of the liv­ing space obtained inside, a small load on the foun­da­tion, which gives the exte­ri­or of the house a spe­cial fla­vor. Of the minus­es - the labo­ri­ous process of installing the truss sys­tem due to the bro­ken pro­file.

Hip - formed with the help of slopes, two of which are trape­zoidal, and the oth­er two - tri­an­gu­lar. This design allows you to sus­tain­ably per­ceive wind loads, so the hip roof will be a good solu­tion for regions with a dif­fi­cult cli­mate.



Mul­ti-for­ceps - a com­plex design in its exe­cu­tion, often erect­ed on elite-class hous­es that have a com­plex con­fig­u­ra­tion. Any roof­ing mate­ri­als can be used as a cov­er­ing for mul­ti-gable roofs.

Based on the fin­ished project of the house, the choice of a suit­able type of roof is close­ly relat­ed to the pur­chase of roof­ing mate­r­i­al for future cov­er­age. Each mate­r­i­al has its own nuances and require­ments for the truss sys­tem. It is impor­tant to take into account the load that the roof will have on the walls and foun­da­tion, labor costs for work. The fol­low­ing roof­ing mate­ri­als have proven them­selves in the con­struc­tion mar­ket:

Ceram­ic tiles - rel­a­tive­ly heavy and expen­sive mate­r­i­al, but it will serve faith­ful­ly for many decades. It has good noise insu­la­tion, water resis­tance, resis­tance to var­i­ous tem­per­a­tures, low ther­mal con­duc­tiv­i­ty and ele­gant appear­ance.

Asbestos-cement slate - of the advan­tages of the mate­r­i­al can be dis­tin­guished ease of instal­la­tion, resis­tance to dif­fer­ent weath­er con­di­tions, dura­bil­i­ty, high water resis­tance, anti-cor­ro­sion. Of the minus­es: the appear­ance, which, in com­par­i­son with oth­er mate­ri­als, does not dif­fer in aes­thet­ics, and also this slate does not belong to eco­log­i­cal mate­ri­als.

Euroslate (ondulin) - among roof­ing mate­ri­als, it is con­sid­ered a bud­get option that is easy to install. At the same time, it has a lit­tle more dis­ad­van­tages: it does not breathe, it is frag­ile, it has a lim­it­ed ser­vice life, and when heat­ed, it evap­o­rates car­cino­gens.

Met­al tile - such a tile will last long enough, because the met­al from which it is made is cov­ered with a lay­er of poly­mer, which allows it to with­stand any weath­er con­di­tions. The advan­tages of the mate­r­i­al also include: rea­son­able cost, a wide choice of col­ors, which will most har­mo­nious­ly empha­size the appear­ance of the house, non-flam­ma­bil­i­ty. Of the minus­es: the mate­r­i­al reflects noise dur­ing rain, does not breathe, with a com­plex roof struc­ture, mate­r­i­al con­sump­tion increas­es.

Bitu­mi­nous (soft) tile - a rel­a­tive­ly new mate­r­i­al that is increas­ing­ly being used for roof­ing. Such a roof can imi­tate ceram­ic tiles, slate or wood chips, which gives the roof a nat­ur­al fla­vor. Among the advan­tages can also be dis­tin­guished: dura­bil­i­ty, a vari­ety of shapes and col­ors. The dis­ad­van­tages include the high cost of instal­la­tion work, low strength, the mate­r­i­al does not breathe, and is capa­ble of releas­ing car­cino­gens.

Cement-sand tiles - nat­ur­al roof­ing mate­r­i­al, which also has an accept­able cost. In this case, the main­te­nance of the coat­ing will not become a bur­den­some moment for the own­er of the house, the mate­r­i­al allows you to eas­i­ly wash off the accu­mu­lat­ed dirt. Also, the pos­i­tive nuances include: dura­bil­i­ty, resis­tance to dif­fer­ent tem­per­a­tures, a vari­ety of shapes, good sound insu­la­tion. Among the dis­ad­van­tages: the mate­r­i­al is quite heavy, so the cost of lay­ing it will be high­er than that of oth­er ana­logues.

Impor­tant! At the stage of erec­tion of the roof, the instal­la­tion of a drainage sys­tem is car­ried out. In most cas­es, exter­nal sys­tems made of plas­tic or met­al are used. But in some cas­es, the project may require an inter­nal drain.

Building’s facade

After the con­struc­tion of the roof, it is nec­es­sary to pro­ceed to the instal­la­tion of win­dows and exter­nal doors. Opti­mal - choose met­al-plas­tic win­dows and a met­al front door. A more bud­get option is con­sid­ered a tra­di­tion­al tree.



Next, you can pro­ceed to the insu­la­tion of the walls of the house. Warm­ing will be required both out­side and inside. The choice of mate­r­i­al as a heater is lim­it­ed only by per­son­al pref­er­ences and finan­cial capa­bil­i­ties. For the inside of the walls, mate­ri­als such as dry­wall and min­er­al wool are suit­able as ther­mal insu­la­tion. Exter­nal walls, for exam­ple, can be insu­lat­ed with facade tiles. You will also need to insu­late the floor of the first floor and roof (attic floor).

The instal­la­tion of a bal­cony and stairs, if they are laid down by the project, is car­ried out by the next step.

After all that has been done, you can com­plete the exte­ri­or of the house accord­ing to the design project. This may include work on the instal­la­tion of friezes, dec­o­ra­tive plumb lines or strips, sof­fits, hem­ming of roof over­hangs, water­proof­ing for pos­si­ble ter­races or bal­conies.

Pipe laying

As soon as the con­ceived image of the house becomes more and more reli­able and sim­i­lar to your dream, you can move on to inte­ri­or work. At this stage, the facade and roof are ful­ly com­plet­ed, so the inte­ri­or of the house is pro­tect­ed from the effects of weath­er con­di­tions. Plan to per­form the fol­low­ing work: place­ment of plumb­ing and sew­er­age.

Before start­ing work, draw up a wiring dia­gram for the drainage sys­tem. The main thing to con­sid­er when design­ing: the num­ber of res­i­dents, the pro­posed sew­er­age treat­ment tech­nol­o­gy, the lay­out of the exter­nal drainage lines, as well as the inter­nal col­lec­tion and dis­pos­al of waste­water. These cri­te­ria will help to cor­rect­ly cal­cu­late the num­ber of sys­tem com­po­nents and the footage of sew­er pipes. Polypropy­lene pipes are now used as a mate­r­i­al, which are dis­tin­guished by their light weight, per­for­mance prop­er­ties and afford­able price. How­ev­er, with­out spe­cial­ists and knowl­edge of estab­lished stan­dards, it is dif­fi­cult to build a high-qual­i­ty sew­er­age sys­tem.

It is nec­es­sary to start the con­struc­tion of a sew­er sys­tem from an exter­nal net­work. To do this, ana­lyze the dis­tance from the exist­ing man­hole to the exter­nal net­work. Accord­ing to the reg­u­la­tions, if the length is more than 12 meters, an addi­tion­al well will be required. For lay­ing exter­nal sew­er pipes, poly­mer pipes are also used, but tak­ing into account sea­son­al freez­ing, insu­la­tion is required.

For a one-sto­ry house, accord­ing to the wiring stan­dards, the plumb­ing fix­tures of the kitchen and the san­i­tary unit are close to the exter­nal point of waste out­let. There­fore, the wall delim­it­ing these premis­es will be the place to install the ris­er pipeline. The low­er point of the ris­er pipe is divert­ed to the exter­nal main, and the upper one is brought out to the roof.

For a pri­vate house with two or three floors, it is typ­i­cal to arrange sev­er­al eco­nom­ic and tech­ni­cal zones. There­fore, sew­er­age wiring will be more com­plex com­pared to a one-sto­ry house. Accord­ing to exist­ing reg­u­la­tions and rules, the place­ment of a san­i­tary unit should be at a sin­gle ver­ti­cal lev­el, that is, one above the oth­er. The pipeline-ris­er, designed for ven­ti­la­tion and sew­er­age, is passed through all avail­able floors and is brought out to the roof, tak­ing into account the addi­tion­al lift, if it is formed by slopes. Only at the final stage is the instal­la­tion and ver­i­fi­ca­tion of the con­nec­tion of plumb­ing fix­tures.


At this stage, the wires are laid in the walls, but they are not con­nect­ed to the devices. This will allow in the future, with the inte­ri­or dec­o­ra­tion of the walls, to once again check and cor­rect pos­si­ble missed nuances.

To work in advance, you will need to draw up a detailed pow­er sup­ply scheme, which will clear­ly reflect the num­ber of sources and how they are includ­ed in the pow­er con­sump­tion cir­cuit. Also, based on the future plan­ning solu­tion, you will need a wiring dia­gram that allows you to cal­cu­late the con­sum­ables and deter­mine the instal­la­tion loca­tion of the main devices — wires, sock­ets, switch­es, lamps, fus­es, meters, junc­tion box­es, etc. Do not for­get that all house­hold appli­ances, sources light­ing and pow­er equip­ment to do their job as effi­cient­ly and safe­ly as pos­si­ble, you need to cal­cu­late the total pow­er con­sump­tion. Their val­ues ​​can be found in the tech­ni­cal data sheets of the devices or use the Inter­net. In accor­dance with them, the wires of the required sec­tion are select­ed.



The ini­tial stage of work on the pow­er sup­ply of the house is the instal­la­tion of an elec­tri­cal pan­el. A sep­a­rate scheme must also be pre­vi­ous­ly devel­oped for it. To increase reli­a­bil­i­ty, con­sumers are divid­ed into sep­a­rate groups of con­nect­ing points: light­ing devices, sock­ets, pow­er ele­ments (boil­er, wash­ing machine), house­hold items addressed to the base­ment or garage. Then cable lines are installed, junc­tion box­es are switched, lines of low-volt­age net­works (TV, Inter­net, tele­pho­ny) are laid, sock­et box­es are installed. After that, you can car­ry out the inter­nal assem­bly of our elec­tri­cal pan­el. It is bet­ter to entrust these oper­a­tions to a pro­fes­sion­al, although if you have the nec­es­sary knowl­edge of electrics, you can do it on your own. Fine electrics — instal­la­tion of fix­tures, instal­la­tion of sock­et blocks and switch­es should be car­ried out already at the last stage, after com­ple­tion of all inter­nal fin­ish­ing work.

It is also nec­es­sary to remem­ber that any pri­vate house must be equipped with a ground loop, which, togeth­er with the ground­ing sys­tem, will pro­tect res­i­dents from elec­tric shock, ensure the safe oper­a­tion of elec­tri­cal appli­ances and reduce the lev­el of elec­tri­cal inter­fer­ence. The cir­cuit is mount­ed in the ground next to the house. Inside the house, ground­ing is con­nect­ed to the ground­ing bus of the elec­tri­cal pan­el.

It is bet­ter to entrust the work with the con­nec­tion of elec­tric­i­ty to a pro­fes­sion­al.
Pho­to: globallookpress.com

Connecting communications

Con­nec­tion of com­mu­ni­ca­tions is car­ried out in accor­dance with the engi­neer­ing project and the con­sent of the orga­ni­za­tion whose net­works will be used as a con­nec­tion. After the con­nec­tion is agreed upon, the sup­ply orga­ni­za­tion will con­clude an agree­ment with you.

Con­nect­ing water sup­ply is con­sid­ered one of the most has­sle-free and fastest, because cen­tral water sup­ply sys­tems are pro­vid­ed almost every­where. Water sup­ply can be cen­tral, and water dis­pos­al is autonomous. Also, these two sys­tems can be simul­ta­ne­ous­ly autonomous — this con­di­tion will depend on the choice of the own­er, accord­ing to his per­son­al pref­er­ences and finan­cial capa­bil­i­ties. At the same time, it is worth remem­ber­ing that water sup­ply is close­ly relat­ed to heat­ing, the instal­la­tion and con­nec­tion of which requires manda­to­ry approval. At the same time, you can heat water and heat the house using elec­tric­i­ty or gas, which is a more ratio­nal option. There­fore, ini­tial­ly pre­pare and find out if it is pos­si­ble to con­duct gas to the house in order to use it as heat­ing in the future.

The dif­fi­cul­ty of con­nect­ing the pow­er sup­ply aris­es when the loca­tion of the house is suf­fi­cient­ly remote from the main dis­tri­b­u­tion sources. The same applies to con­nect­ing the gas sup­ply when the dis­tance from the house to the main gas pipeline is too great.

Interior decoration

Hav­ing com­plet­ed the main stages of build­ing a house, you can pro­ceed to the inte­ri­or dec­o­ra­tion of the premis­es. This work will require an inte­ri­or design project. Hav­ing reached this stage, you can use the ser­vices of a design­er, or you can do it your­self, hav­ing the nec­es­sary knowl­edge and an accu­rate under­stand­ing of the future pic­ture.

Before pro­ceed­ing with the fin­ish­ing work, par­ti­tions are installed, accord­ing to the plan­ning deci­sion. They can be from dif­fer­ent mate­ri­als, but most often they are built from dry­wall. It is attached to a pre­fab­ri­cat­ed alu­minum pro­file frame. Fur­ther, depend­ing on the cho­sen mate­r­i­al from which the par­ti­tions are built, aes­thet­ic design will be required in the form of seal­ing seams, lev­el­ing the sur­face of the walls, as well as fin­ish­ing win­dow and door slopes. The next step will be work on the rough floor screed.

After we pro­ceed to the instal­la­tion of ceil­ings. If this is a stretch ceil­ing, then we restrict our­selves to mort­gages, the stretch­ing of the can­vas itself will take place at the final stages. In the case of installing a plas­ter­board ceil­ing, it is nec­es­sary to car­ry out all the steps before paint­ing it. It is nec­es­sary to paint the ceil­ing from GKL after prepar­ing the walls for paint­ing or wall­pa­per, but before the fin­ish coat­ing is applied to the walls.

Depend­ing on the pre­ferred wall fin­ish, whether it is wall­pa­per or paint, it is nec­es­sary to make appro­pri­ate sur­face prepa­ra­tion. In no case should you neglect the primer. After that, make the final lev­el­ing of the floor for the final lay­ing of the coat­ing, usu­al­ly a self-lev­el­ing floor is used for this. If you do this work in this sequence, you will keep a neat and orig­i­nal appear­ance of the future floor. After, if nec­es­sary, if the ceil­ing is made of plas­ter­board, it is worth paint­ing the ceil­ing, then the walls, or wall­pa­per­ing. The com­plet­ed work allows you to pro­ceed to work on lay­ing the floor fin­ish. The tech­nol­o­gy of the select­ed lay­ing mate­r­i­al may vary, it all depends on per­son­al pref­er­ences. The next step is the final instal­la­tion of elec­tri­cians, pow­er is con­nect­ed to switch­es, sock­ets and lamps. Plumb­ing fix­tures and oth­er nec­es­sary acces­sories are installed. Heat­ing radi­a­tors are mount­ed, fur­ni­ture is arranged.

Expert advice

Evge­ny Shamin, Gen­er­al Direc­tor of Dekostroy:



– Before decid­ing to build your own house, you need to think about impor­tant and insep­a­ra­ble com­po­nents, such as the main build­ing and fin­ish­ing mate­ri­als, the cost of the work per­formed, the design of the house, which includes archi­tec­tur­al, struc­tur­al and engi­neer­ing sec­tions, and a visu­al esti­mate. In addi­tion, before build­ing a house, it is worth mak­ing a study of the land plot, you can order it from a spe­cial­ized geo­det­ic orga­ni­za­tion. A geo­det­ic study of the site will help to draw up a detailed analy­sis of the soil and make the right choice in favor of the desired type of foun­da­tion. It is not worth sav­ing when draft­ing an indi­vid­ual house. It is best to entrust its imple­men­ta­tion to a spe­cial­ist — an archi­tect-design­er, so you will get the most elab­o­rate option for your lifestyle and avoid gross mis­takes when plan­ning and build­ing a house. For a com­fort­able stay in the future home, car­ry out the nec­es­sary com­mu­ni­ca­tions on the site in advance.

Popular questions and answers

How to reduce the cost of building a house?

A full-fledged house project not only makes it pos­si­ble to visu­al­ly under­stand the whole pic­ture of con­struc­tion and wise­ly allo­cate funds, but also to eval­u­ate the nuances on which you can save. At the same time, high-qual­i­ty mate­ri­als and con­struc­tion work can­not be cheap. If you choose more demo­c­ra­t­ic build­ing mate­ri­als in order to save mon­ey, you need to under­stand what pos­si­ble prob­lems you may encounter in the future. Many peo­ple, choos­ing a rel­a­tive­ly inex­pen­sive mate­r­i­al for walls, try to save mon­ey, but when they reach the stage of inte­ri­or dec­o­ra­tion, they spend on a large amount of plas­ter­ing work. As a result, the cost of fin­ished walls with an imag­i­nary bud­get option becomes the same as with a more expen­sive high-qual­i­ty option.

It is impor­tant that the main struc­tures are durable, able to pro­tect your fam­i­ly from dif­fer­ent weath­er con­di­tions. In addi­tion, being inside, it is impor­tant to feel as safe and com­fort­able as pos­si­ble psy­cho­log­i­cal­ly. Aer­at­ed con­crete will become a wor­thy mate­r­i­al for build­ing walls of a mod­ern pri­vate house. Accord­ing to its char­ac­ter­is­tics, it is quite light, so it does not require a pow­er­ful and expen­sive foun­da­tion. But at the same time, it is worth remem­ber­ing the required wall thick­ness, which varies depend­ing on the region of con­struc­tion. When choos­ing a foun­da­tion foun­da­tion, it is extreme­ly impor­tant to con­sult with experts and study geo­det­ic sur­veys. One of the most com­mon­ly used types of foun­da­tion for the main types of soil is con­sid­ered to be tape, only if it is not planned to build a base­ment. If a base­ment floor is planned, then when build­ing a foun­da­tion, it is bet­ter to mix con­crete with a pen­etron, so con­crete increas­es its water resis­tance and ground­wa­ter is not afraid of it.

When choos­ing the type of roof, you need to under­stand that its shape also affects the cost of build­ing a house. Shed and gable roofs in the imple­men­ta­tion of the project of the house, in com­par­i­son with the exploit­ed and mul­ti-pitched, are a more bud­get option. For cov­er­age, you can con­sid­er soft tiles or met­al tiles, the sec­ond will be much cheap­er. But at the same time, the met­al tile has a sig­nif­i­cant dis­ad­van­tage — dur­ing rain, espe­cial­ly if it cov­ers the attic floor, every drop that hits the roof sur­face will be heard. With soft tiles, such a high noise reflec­tion does not occur. For fin­ish­ing the facade, bark bee­tle plas­ter is con­sid­ered a bud­get option. It is sim­ple in exe­cu­tion, envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly, resis­tant to var­i­ous dam­ages.

For con­struc­tion work, in order to reduce the cost of build­ing a house, you can attract indi­vid­ual crafts­men, for exam­ple, mono­lith­ic, car­pen­ters, roofers or plumbers, while each of them must be a qual­i­fied spe­cial­ist in his field. But you will have to con­trol the work your­self. Risks may arise when some con­trac­tors shift respon­si­bil­i­ty for poor-qual­i­ty work to oth­ers, oth­ers to oth­ers.

What is better to entrust contractors?

It is bet­ter to entrust the cre­ation of an indi­vid­ual project for build­ing a house to an expe­ri­enced archi­tect. Thus, every­thing will be cre­at­ed com­plete­ly for your needs. When cre­at­ing a project, you can also use ready-made tem­plates that archi­tects have post­ed on the Inter­net, this solu­tion will be cheap­er.

Heavy and tech­ni­cal­ly com­plex work, such as mono­lith­ic work, foun­da­tion and roof­ing, is also best entrust­ed to expe­ri­enced pro­fes­sion­als. Since the cap­i­tal of the future home depends on their qual­i­ty.

How to independently control the construction of the house?

It is quite dif­fi­cult to inde­pen­dent­ly con­trol the con­struc­tion of a house, espe­cial­ly if you do not have build­ing knowl­edge and skills. At the same time, you need to be pre­pared for the fact that in order to con­trol hid­den work, you will need to be on the con­struc­tion site for vir­tu­al­ly the entire time. You also need to under­stand the specifics of a par­tic­u­lar tech­nol­o­gy used in the con­struc­tion of a house. There are nuances that you will not learn from open sources; only a spe­cial­ist in this field can know them.

What to do if there is no way to control the construction of the house?

In the case when you use the ser­vices of a con­struc­tion com­pa­ny and are not going to be con­stant­ly present at the con­struc­tion site, you can pre-arrange a video sur­veil­lance sys­tem at the facil­i­ty. Thus, from any­where in the world where there is Inter­net, you can mon­i­tor and con­trol the progress of con­struc­tion using your smart­phone. It is impor­tant to choose a con­struc­tion com­pa­ny with a good rep­u­ta­tion, which has already estab­lished itself in the con­struc­tion ser­vices mar­ket.