Bruce is perfect. According to its aesthetic characteristics, it belongs to the true works of building art. It is only important to choose the right timber for building a house. We will listen to the instructions and advice of experts on this issue.
Leonardo da Vinci never invented the beam. It is possible that this was done several centuries later by Russian craftsmen, who were famous for their wooden buildings without a single nail. It is no coincidence that they say that everything ingenious is simple. Take an ordinary log, trim it from four sides, and you get a beam. But before that, as before the invention of the wheel, it was necessary to think. In addition, the hewing must be very careful in order to create a smooth surface and a regular square shape. Only in this way can the bars be stacked on top of each other without a gap.
More complex types of timber were already invented by Europeans. Starting from the 16th century, in Europe, in the construction of bridges and arches, bent wooden structures began to be used, which were fastened together with special wedges, and then with metal brackets.
The creator of glued laminated timber is the German carpenter Karl Hetzer. In 1906, he patented his invention for gluing small wooden boards with casein glue, which were used in construction. In Switzerland, houses were built from such boards. In the future, technology began to improve rapidly. In Russia, the production of glued wooden structures began to develop actively in the middle of the 20th century. Currently, various types of timber are the most demanded material in the wood construction market.
Features of using timber for building a house
The beam is made from natural wood, mainly coniferous species: pine, spruce, larch, cedar. This has its own explanation. Such wood contains a lot of resin, which is a natural antiseptic and preservative, so it does not break down for a long time. Coniferous wood is relatively soft and easy to process. In addition, it is affordable.
The most commonly used is pine. It is cheaper than other breeds and the most convenient in processing. Larch and cedar are much more expensive. Spruce timber is used least often in the construction of houses, as it is difficult to process and collapses faster. It is possible to make timber from other types of trees, for example, from oak or beech, but in this case the price will be sky-high.
There are a number of features of the use of timber in the construction of a house:
a bar made from natural material has a high environmental friendliness, which is especially appreciated in our time, when a healthy lifestyle is becoming more and more popular;
an acceptable price is a very important indicator, since it makes such construction affordable for the widest strata of the population;
a house made of timber is durable, more than one generation of owners can live in it;
it should be noted the simplicity of technology and the speed of assembly at home;
due to the ease of construction, there is no need to lay a powerful foundation, which significantly reduces construction time and costs;
no need to carry out external and internal decoration of the house, as the timber has a natural beauty. In extreme cases, these works can be minimized, which allows significant savings.
How to build a house from a bar
Increasingly, a bathhouse is being built on sites from timber, and not from bricks or logs.
Types of timber for building a house
When building a house, the following types of timber are most often used: ordinary, profiled and glued. Consider the pros and cons of each type.
This type of timber is the most represented on the building materials market, since it has the simplest manufacturing technology and does not require complex woodworking equipment. The log is simply sawn from four sides. Most often, the cross-sectional size of such a beam is 150 by 150 mm or 150 by 200 mm.
This timber is an environmentally friendly material, because it can regulate the level of humidity in the house, absorbing excess moisture or increasing the humidity of dry air. In addition, the beam is able to regulate the temperature and air conditions due to the microcirculation of air in the wood itself.
Low cost, which is explained by the lack of costs for drying wood and its processing.
Availability in acquisition and supply, since this material is almost always present in the warehouse and on the construction market.
An increase in construction time, since a house made of raw timber needs to shrink, which lasts from six months to a year. The resulting gaps require caulking.
Unprofiled timber often cracks as a result of drying, which requires additional work to cover up cracks.
The surface of the raw timber is not smooth, and this complicates the process of laying the crown; it is not possible to achieve a snug fit of the bars to each other.
The drying of the beam leads to the fact that a large load falls on the fastening material (dowels, grooves).
Since a simple timber is not treated with antiseptics, this leads to the formation of a fungus and requires additional costs to combat it.
A simple timber does not have the same attractiveness as a processed one, which implies significant costs for interior and exterior finishing and insulation.
It is also made from a whole log, but, unlike a simple beam, it undergoes significant factory processing, as a result of which it has high-quality side surfaces and a complex sectional contour. Some companies make special kits for such a beam, which allows you to assemble a house in a short time.
Profiled timber, as well as ordinary timber, has environmental benefits, as it regulates humidity, temperature and air circulation in the house.
There are longitudinal stripes on the beam, which contribute to the snug fit of the beams and reduce heat loss after the construction of the house.
The profiled beam is well processed at the factory and is completely ready for assembly, while its price is only 1.5 times higher than that of the usual one.
This beam is standard, which dramatically increases the speed of building a house, in addition, the longitudinal stripes increase the adhesion density of the beams, and this reduces the possibility of twisting and cracking.
Profiled timber practically does not need finishing, since smooth wooden surfaces look beautiful anyway.
If the profiled timber is not dried in the factory, then shrinkage of the house cannot be avoided, just as in the situation with an ordinary timber.
Cracks may appear as a result of shrinkage, but their number will be small.
Glued laminated timber
Unlike previous types, this beam is glued together from special blanks (lamellas) of coniferous trees. The blanks are pre-dried and treated with antiseptics and flame retardants, which significantly reduces their fire hazard and increases the level of resistance to decay.
A house built of glued beams practically does not shrink, which significantly reduces the time of its construction.
The presence of lamellas eliminates the possibility of cracks.
The strength of glued laminated timber is approximately 1.5 times higher than that of its counterparts.
Well-dried wood does not change its shape during the entire construction and further operation.
High heat saving characteristics significantly reduce heating costs.
You can do without interior and exterior decoration due to the attractive appearance of this product, but if finishing is still required, then preliminary work is not needed.
The ability to order a beam of the required section, which is most consistent with the project of the future home.
The high cost of glued laminated timber, which is about 2.5 times more expensive than its solid wood counterparts.
Due to the fact that glue is used, the ecological properties of the timber are somewhat reduced: to absorb moisture and circulate air.
Thus, it can be seen that the number of pluses increases, and the number of minuses decreases in the transition from ordinary timber to profiled and glued. The most high-quality and often used in construction are profiled and glued beams.
Popular questions and answers
Pavel Bunin, owner of the bath complex“Bansk”:
What thickness to choose a timber for building a house?
The choice of timber thickness depends on the following conditions:
- in what climate the house will be built; - what funds can be used to build a house; — wishes of the customer on external and internal design.
The thickness of the beam affects the solution of the following problems:
1. Thermal insulation. The general rule applies here: the thicker the timber, the warmer it is in the house. The optimal thickness is 200 mm.
2. Noise isolation. Wood absorbs sounds better than brick or stone, so even a small thickness of timber will protect against excess noise.
3. The strength of the structure. For a one-story house, a beam with a thickness of 100–150 mm is suitable. If it is planned to build a two-story cottage, then you need to stock up on timber from 160 mm.
Which timber is suitable for building a winter house?
A winter house is usually called a house in which people live all year round. This can be built from various types of timber, general recommendations are preserved here. An important factor is the thickness of the timber, although it is not decisive. Usually a winter house is built from profiled timber 200 mm thick. It still does not protect against severe frosts, so it is necessary to use a heater. The calculation here is as follows: a 50 mm thick insulation is equivalent in terms of thermal insulation to a 150 mm thick beam. Depending on the severity of winter, a heater with a thickness of 50, 100 or 150 mm is used.
What are the new types of timber?
Currently, new types of timber have appeared, which are associated with the modernization of existing building products.
This is the LVL bar. It is made by analogy with glued beams, but differs in the material used. Veneer is taken from various trees with a thickness of about 3 mm and glued layer by layer. In this case, the direction of the fibers in adjacent layers should be the same. It turns out a very durable and flexible material, but extremely expensive. Therefore, it is used mainly for the implementation of individual structures of the house. It is unprofitable to erect an entire building from it.
Another modern type of timber is thermal timber. It consists of lamellas, inside of which is expanded polystyrene. This significantly reduces the weight of the beam and increases its heat-saving qualities. Thus, a two-pronged task is solved: the mass of the house is reduced, which reduces the pressure on the foundation, and the thermal insulation is located in the timber itself, which does not require additional insulation after the construction of the house.