Of the entire list of fasteners for construction, anchors are characterized by maximum strength. With the help of anchors, both strong (concrete, solid brick, natural stone) and not very strong (foam concrete, aerated concrete, hollow brick), the most critical parts or structures are attached. In construction anchor fastener is actively used for arranging canopies, fixing stair railings, beams, fences and elements of engineering systems, installing columns or racks, fixing decorative elements on walls and ceilings, as well as fixing scaffolding at the stage of work. With the same dimensions anchors withstand greater loads than, for example, nails, dowels, nails, but they are more difficult in design, installation and higher in price.
If you need to be as confident as possible in the strength of the fastening, you should choose the anchor as the fastener. According to Wikipedia, the word comes from the German “anker” — “anchor”. Manufacturers produce a wide variety of anchoring equipment in terms of design, material of manufacture, purpose, installation and operation features. The most common is the following classification, reflecting the design and installation of anchors:
Expanding, driving, mortgage, wedge — these are all mechanical anchors. As a rule, in the design of such hardware there are spacer, bursting and fixing components. For example, consider one of the most popular both industrial and private applications, the wedge anchor.
The wedge anchor provides a strong attachment to the base of concrete, stone, solid brick. The basis of the product is a rod with a thread on one side and a cone on the other. A split sleeve is put on the cone. A nut with a washer is screwed onto the thread. To install the anchor, a hole is drilled in the base, cleaned of dust and dirt. It must exactly match the diameter of the fastener. After aligning the holes in the base and the attached part, the wedge anchor is hammered into the hole with gentle hammer blows. When the nut is tightened, the cone approaches and bursts the sleeve, which is firmly fixed in the base due to friction. To obtain a reliable bond, follow the manufacturer’s instructions:
ensure the specified tightening torque
the hole must match the marking of the anchor
the base is solid, without shells and other flaws
the distance from the edge of the base must not be less than that specified by the manufacturer
Wedge anchors are available in a wide range of sizes. From the wholesale supplier Mashkrepezh on the site www.rusbolt.ru they can be bought in lengths from 50 to 600 mm, diameters from M6 to M24.
For loose or hollow foundations, the principle of physical expansion is not suitable — the material simply collapses. In this case, a special adhesive composition is first pumped into the hole, then a rod with a threaded end is already placed in it. Two-component adhesive composition (hardener and resin) is made on the basis of polyurethane, acrylic, polyester resins with fillers. The hardener and resin are mixed directly before being pumped into the hole. This method is simply indispensable for fragile foundations. In chemical anchors, there is no spreading force, they can be placed closer to the edge of the base. Disadvantages — high cost, installation is more difficult and takes a long time, up to 1 hour.
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