Geotextile — the most common geosynthetic material used in construction to work with soil.
Geotextiles pass water well without absorbing it. Therefore, it is not subject to decay, the effects of fungi and mold, rodents and insects, and the germination of roots. Its main function is the separation of soils and water filtration. It is widely used in road construction, house construction, drainage systems, landscaping, as well as in the construction of landfills and waste storage facilities. With the use of geotextiles, the service life of the pavement is significantly increased and maintenance costs are reduced.
There are two main types of geotextiles:
Non Woven Geotextile
Non-woven geotextile, in turn, is divided into:
Needle punched geotextile (or else Dornit)
Thermally bonded geotextile
Below we will consider each of the types and subspecies of geotextiles in more detail.
It is made by means of a rectangular weave of several threads and includes fibers whose directions are mutually perpendicular to each other. The material is characterized by good water permeability and tensile strength, and also has a high initial level of deformation. Because of these properties, it is most often used for reinforcing foundations and in the construction of retaining walls.
Needle punched geotextile
This is a non-woven material, which is a polyester or polypropylene fabric, consisting of fibers fastened with a needle-punched method. Needle-punched geotextile owes its “nickname” to Dornit to the DorNII Institute, whose specialists in the late 70s and early 80s were developing a method for manufacturing non-woven fabric based on French technology.
Technical characteristics of the needle punch:
Dornit works well with soils containing fine particles such as sand. Due to the elasticity of the pores, needle-punched geotextiles can let a fine particle through, allowing it to linger in the next layer of needle-punched geotextiles, or allow water to bypass a clogged pore due to elasticity. Due to this, dornit is more suitable for road surfaces than the same thermally bonded geotextile, although the latter is used quite often in this area.
You can buy Dornit geotextiles in St. Petersburg and other cities of Russia for a very affordable price in online stores and construction hypermarkets.
Thermally bonded geotextile
A non-woven polyester or polypropylene material whose fibers are heat treated and bonded. In the production process of thermally bonded geotextiles, additives are included in the feedstock, due to which the light resistance of the finished material is increased. This geotextile is widely used in underground and road construction. It has a homogeneous structure, has a high modulus of elasticity, significant elongation to break, excellent water permeability, and is resistant to chemical compounds, acids and alkalis. However, small soil particles can get stuck in its structure, due to which the service life is reduced.
The density of thermally bonded geotextiles can vary from 80 to 1200g/m2. It usually depends on the manufacturer. It comes in small rolls and is light in weight, making it easy to transport. Geotextile rolls can be easily sawn with a chain or hand saw.